Cited Literatures of the second volume: Red Meat Science & Production
Aaslyng, M.D., M.A. Torngren, and N.T. Madsen. 2010. Scandinavian consumer preference for beef steaks packed with or without oxygen. Meat Sci. 85:519–524.
Aberle, E.D., E.S. Reeves, M.D. Judge, R.E. Hunsley, and T.W. Perry. 1981. Palatability and muscle characteristics of cattle with controlled weight gain: Time on a high energy diet. J. Anim. Sci. 52:757.
Abril, M., M.M. Campo, A. Önenç, C. Sañudo, P. Albertī, and A.I. Negueruela. 2001. Beef color evolution as a function of ultimate pH. Meat Sci. 58:69-78.
Acebron, L.B., and D.C. Dopico. 2000. The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic cues to expected and experienced quality: An empirical application for beef. Food Qual. Prefer. 11:229–238.
Acheson, R.J., D.R. Woerner, and J.D. Tatum. 2014. Effects of USDA carcass maturity on sensory attributes of beef produced by grain finished steers and heifers classified as less than 30 months old using dentition. J. Anim. Sci. 92:1792–1799.
Adams, J.M. 2003. Ways of dying: Multiple pathways to apoptosis. Genes Dev. 17:2481–2495.
Adams, N.J., G.C. Smith, and Z.L. Carpenter. 1982. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle. Meat Sci. 7:67–79.
Adams, T.E., and B.M. Adams. 1992. Feedyard performance of steers and bulls actively immunized against gonadotropin-releasing hormone. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1691–1698.
Adams, T.H., R.L. Walzem, D.R. Smith, S. Tseng, and S.B. Smith. 2010. Hamburger high in total saturated and trans-fatty acids decreases HDL cholesterol and LDL particle diameter, and increases plasma TAG, in mildly hypercholesterolaemic men. Brit. J. Nutr. 103:91-98.
Adelstein, R.S., E. Eisenberg. 1980. Regulation and kinetics of the actin–myosin–ATP interaction. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 49:921-956.
Adhikari, K., E.I.V. Chambers, R. Miller, R.L. Vázquez-Araújo, N. Bhumiratana, and C. Philip. 2011. Development of a lexicon for beef flavor in intact muscle. J. Sens. Stud. 26:413–420.
Ahn, D.H., K. Shimada, and K. Takahashi. 2003. Relationship between weakening of Z-disks and liberation of phospholipids during postmortem aging of pork and beef. J. Food Sci. 68:94–98.
Akinwunmi, I., L. Thompson, and C. Ramsey. 1993. Marbling, fat trim and doneness effects on sensory attributes, cooking loss and composition of cooked beef steaks. J. Food Sci. 58:242–244.
Albisu, L.M., M. Henchion, P. Leat, and D. Blandford. 2010. Improving agri-food chain relationships in Europe: The role of public policy. In C. Fischer, and M. Hartmann (Eds.), Agri-food chain relationships, pp. 250–266. CAB Int’l.
Allais, S., L. Journaux, H. Leveziel, N. Payet-Duprat, P. Raynaud, J.F. Hocquette, J. Lepetit, S. Rousset, C. Denoyelle, C. Bernard-Capel, and G. Renand. 2011. Effects of polymorphisms in the calpastatin and μ-calpain genes on meat tenderness in 3 French beef breeds. J. Anim. Sci. 89:1–11.
Allingham, P. G., G.S. Harper, and R.A. Hunter. 1998. Effect of growth path on the tenderness of the semitendinosus muscle of Brahman-cross steers. Meat Sci. 48:65–73.
Allingham, P.G., W. Barris, A. Reverter, V. Hilsenstein, R. Van de Ven, and D.L. Hopkins. 2009. Sire and growth-path effects on sheep meat production. 3. Fascicular structure of lamb loin muscle (m. longissimus lumborum) and the impact on eating quality. Anim. Prod. Sci. 49:239–247.
Almlie, V.L., L. VanWezemael, W. Verbeke, and O. Ueland. 2013. One technology does not fit all: Profiling consumers of tender and tenderized beef steaks. Meat Sci. 93:361–370.
Aloia, L., B. Di Stefano, and L. Di Croce. 2013. Polycomb complexes in stem cells and embryonic development. Develop. 140:2525–2534.
Alomar, D. C. Gallo, M. Castan, and R. Fuchslocher. 2003. Chemical and discriminant analysis of bovine meat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. (NIRS) Meat Sci. 63:441–450.
Amatayakul-Chantler, S.J.A. Jackson, J. Stegner, V. King, L.M.S. Rubio, R. Howard, E. Lopez, and J. Walker. 2012. Immunocastration of Bos indicus × Brown Swiss bulls in feedyard with gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine Bopriva provides improved performance and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 90:3718–3728.
Amengual, J., J. Ribot, M.L. Bonet, and A. Palou. 2008. Retinoic acid treatment increases lipid oxidation capacity in skeletal muscle of mice. Obesity 16:585–591.
Amengual, J., P. Petrov, M.L. Bonet, J. Ribot, and A. Palou. 2012. Induction of carnitine palmitoyl transferases 1 and fatty acid oxidation by retinoic acid in HepG2 cells. Intl. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 44:2019–2027.
Ames, J. M., R.C.E. Guy, and G.J. Kipping. 2001. Effect of pH and temperature on the formation of volatile compounds in cysteine/reducing sugar/starch mixtures during extrusion cooking. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:1885–1894.
Arnett, E. J., F.L. Fluharty, S.C. Loerch, H.N. Zerby, R.A. Zinn, and P.S. Kuber. 2012. Effects of forage level in feedlot finishing diets on carcass characteristics and palatability of Jersey beef. J. Anim. Sci. 90:960–972.
Andersen, H.J., N. Oksbjerg, J.F. Young, and M. Therkildsen. 2005. Review: feeding and meat quality – a future approach. Meat Sci. 70:543–554.
Anderson, O.S., K.E. Sant, and D.C. Dolinoy. 2012. Nutrition and epigenetics: an interplay of dietary methyl donors, one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 8:853-859.
Anderson, P., and J. Gleghorn. 2007. Non-genetic factors that affect quality grade of fed cattle. In: Proc. Beef Improv. Fed. 39th Ann. Res. Symp. Ann. Meet., Fort Collins, CO. p. 31–43.
Anderson,M.J., S.M. Lonergan, C.A. Fedler, K.J. Prusa, J.M. Binning, and E. Huff-Lonergan. 2012. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round. Meat Sci. 91:247–254.
Anderson, T.J., and F.C. Parrish. 1989. Postmortem degradation of titin and nebulin of beef steaks varying in tenderness. J. Food Sci. 54:748–749.
Apple, J.K., M.E. Dikeman, J.E. Minton, R.M. McMurphy, M.R. Fedde, and J.A. Unruh. 1995. Effects of restraint and isolation stress and epidural blockade on endocrine and blood metabolite status, muscle glycogen metabolism, and incidence of dark cutting longissimus muscle of sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2295–2307.
Apple, J.K., J.B. Machete, R.J. Stackhouse, T.M. Johnson, C.A. Key, and, J.W.S. Yancey. 2014. Color stability and tenderness variations within the gluteus medius from beef top sirloin butts Meat Sci. 96:56–64
Arakwa, N., S. Fujiki, C. Inacaki, and M. Fujimaki. 1967. A catheptic protease active in ultimate pH of muscle. Agric. Biol. Chem. 40:1265–1267.
Archile-Contreras, A., I.B. Mandell, and P.P. Purslow. 2010. Disparity of dietary effects on collagen characteristics and toughness between two beef muscles. Meat Sci. 86:491–497.
Argiles, J.M., J. Lopez-Soriano, V. Almendro, S. Busquets, and F.J. Lopez-Soriano. 2005. Cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: A link with obesity? Med. Res. Rev. 25:49–65.
Arnett, A.M., M.E. Dikeman, M.J. Daniel, K.C. Olson, J. Jaeger, and J. Perrett. 2009. Effects of vitamin A supplementation and weaning age on serum and liver retinol concentrations, carcass traits, and lipid composition in market beef cattle. Meat Sci. 81:596–606.
Arnett, E. J., F.L. Fluharty, S.C. Loerch, H.N. Zerby, R.A. Zinn, and P.S. Kuber. 2012. Effects of forage level in feedyard finishing diets on carcass characteristics and palatability of Jersey beef. J. Anim. Sci. 90:960–972.
Arnold, R.N., K.K. Scheller, S.C. Arp, S.N. Williams, and D.M. Schaefer. 1993a. Dietary α-tocopheryl acetate enhances beef quality in Holstein and beef breed steers. J. Food Sci. 58:28–33.
Arnold, R.N., S.C. Arp, K.K. Scheller, S.N. Williams, and D.M. Schaefer. 1993b. Effects of supplementing cattle with vitamin E upon α-tocopherol equilibration in tissues and incorporation into longissimus fractions and upon lipid and myoglobin oxidation in displayed beef. J. Anim. Sci. 71:105–118.
Arnold, R.N., K.K. Scheller, S.C. Arp, S.N. Williams, D.R. Buege, and D.M. Schaefer. 1992. Effect of long-or short-term feeding of alpha-tocopheryl acetate to Holstein and crossbred beef steers on performance, carcass characteristics, and beef color stability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3055–3065.
Arp, T.S., S.T. Howard, D.R. Woerner, J.A. Scanga, D.R. McKenna, W.H. Kolath, P.L. Chapman, J. D. Tatum, and K. E. Belk. 2013. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5989–5997.
Arrigo, A. P. 2005. In search of the molecular mechanism by which small stress proteins counteract apoptosis during cellular differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 94:241–246.
Arthur, P. F. 1995. Double muscling in cattle: A review. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 46:1493–1515.
Aruoma, O.I., B. Halliwell, R. Aeschbach, and J. Löligers. 1992. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of active rosemary constituents: Carnosol and carnosic acid. Xenobiotica 22:257–268.
Ashkenazi, A., and V.M. Dixit. 1998. Death receptors: Signaling and modulation. Sci. 281:1305–1308.
ASTM. 2011. Standard specification for tenderness marketing claims associated with meat cuts derived from beef. http://www.astm.org/Standards/F2925.htm. (Accessed 24 February 2014.)
Atomi, Y., S. Yamada, R. Strohman, and Y. Nonomura. 1991. αB-crystallin in skeletal muscle: Purification and localization. J. Biochem. 110:812–822.
Avram, M.M., A.S. Avram, and W.D. James. 2007. Subcutaneous fat in normal and diseased states 3. Adipogenesis: From stem cell to fat cell. J. Amer. Acad. Derm. 56:472–492.
Azain, M. J. 2004. Role of fatty acids in adipocyte growth and development. J. Anim. Sci. 82:916–924.
Ba, H.V., K.S. Ryu, N.T.K. Lan, and I. Hwang. 2013. Influence of particular breed on meat quality parameters, sensory characteristics, and volatile components. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 22: 651–658.
Bachi, A., and T. Bonaldi. 2011 Quantitative proteomics as a new piece of the systems biology puzzle. J. Proteomics 71:357-367.
Badalamente, M.A., and A. Stracher. 2000. Delay of muscle degeneration and necrosis in mdx mice by calpain inhibition. Muscle Nerve 23:106–111.
Bailey, A.J. 1972. The basis of meat texture. J. Sci. Food Agric. 23:995–1007.
Bailey, A.J. 1985. The role of collagen in the development of muscle and its relationship to eating quality. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1580.
Bailey, A.J. 1989. The chemistry of collagen cross-links and their role in meat texture. Recipr. Meat Conf. Proc. 42:127–135.
Bailey, A.J., and M.S. Shimokomaki. 1972. Age related changes in the reducible cross-links of collagen. FEBS Letters 16:86–88.
Bailey, A.J., and T.J. Sims. 1976. Chemistry of the collagen cross-links. Biochem. J. 153:211–215.
Bailey, A.J., M.B. Enser, E. Dransfield, D.J. Restall, and N.C. Avery. 1982. Muscle and adipose tissue from normal and double muscled cattle: collagen types, muscle fiber diameter, fat cell size and fatty acid composition and organoleptic properties. In J. W. B. King, and F. Menissier (Eds.), Muscle hypertrophy of genetic origin and its use to improve beef production, pp. 179−202. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Bailey, M.E., J. Suzuki, L.N. Fernando, H.A. Swartz, and R.W. Purchas. 1994. Influence of finishing diets on lamb flavor. Lipids in food flavors. ACS Symposium Series 558. 12:170-185. Washington: Amer. Chem. Soc.
Baird, L.G., L.E.R. Dawson, I.S. Young, and N.E. O’Connell. 2010. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of the digital cushion of bulls offered different amounts of linseed. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2403-2409.
Bakkali, F., S. Averbeck, D. Averbeck, and M. Idaomar. 2008. Biological effects of essential oils–A review. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46:446–475.
Balan, P., H. Yuan, .B. Kim, R. Blijenburg. 2014. Small heat shock protein degradation could be an indicator of the extent of myofibrillar protein degradation. Meat Sci. 97:220–222.
Balumar, T., M. Enneking, S. Toepfl, and V. Heinz. 2013. New developments in shockwave technology intended for meat tenderization: Opportunities and challenges. A review. Meat Sci. 95:931–939.
Banovic, M., K.G. Grunert, M.M. Barriera, and M.A. Fontes. 2009. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase: A study from Portugal Food Qual. Pref. 20:335–342.
Barbin, D., G. ElMasry, D.W. Sun, D. W., and P. Allen. 2012. Predicting quality and sensory attributes of pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Anal. Chim. Acta, 719, 30–42.
Barendse, W.J. 2002. DNA markers format tenderness. International patent publication W0 02/064820.
Barendse, W., R.J. Bunch, and B.E. Harrison. 2010. The effect of variation at the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C gene on intramuscular fat percent and marbling score in Australian cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 88:47-51.
Barendse, W., B.E. Harrison, R.J. Bunch, and M.B. Thomas. 2008. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle. BMC Gen. 9:41.
Barendse, W., B.E. Harrison, R.J. Hawken, D.M. Ferguson, J.M. Thompson, M.B. Thomas et al. 2007. Epistasis between calpain 1 and its inhibitor calpastatin within breeds of cattle. Gen. 176:2601–2610.
Barham, B.L., J.C. Brooks, J.R. Blanton, Jr., A.D. Herring, M.A. Carr, K.R. Kirth, and M.F. Miller. 2003. Effects of growth implants on consumer perceptions of meat tenderness in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 81:3052-3056.
Barker, D.J. 1995. Intrauterine programming of adult disease. Molec. Med. Today 1:418–423.
Baron, C.P., S. Jacobsen, and P.P. Purslow. 2004. Cleavage of desmin by cysteine proteases: Calpains and cathepsin B. Meat Sci. 68:447–456.
Barreto, G., A. Schafer, J. Marhold, D. Stach, S.K. Swaminathan, V. Handa, et. al. 2007. Gadd45a promotes epigenetic gene activation by repair-mediated DNA demethylation. Nat. 445:671–675.
Barrett, M.J., D.E. Goll, and V.F. Thompson. 1991. Effect of substrate on Ca2+-concentration required for activity of the Ca2+- dependent proteinases, µ- and m-calpain. Life Sci. J. 48:1659–1669.
Bass, P.D., J.A. Scanga, P.L. Chapman, G.C. Smith, and K.E. Belk. 2009. Associations between portion size acceptability of beef cuts and ribeye area of beef carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2935-2942.
Bass, P.D., T.E. Engle, K.E. Belk, P.L. Chapman, S.L. Archibeque, G.C. Smith, and J.D. Tatum. 2010. Effects of sex and short-term magnesium supplementation on stress responses and longissimus muscle quality characteristics of crossbred cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 88:349–360.
Bauchart, C., D. Remond, C. Chambon, P.P. Mirand, I. Savary-Auzeloux, C. Reynes, et. al. 2006. Small peptides (<5 kDa) found in ready-to-eat beef meat. Meat Sci. 74:658-666.
Beall, A.C., K. Kato, J.R. Goldenring, H. Rasmussen, and C.M. Brophy. 1997. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasorelaxation is associated with the phosphorylation of a small heat shock-related protein. J. Biol. Chem. 272:11283–11287.
Becila, S., C.H. Herrera-Mendez, G. Coulis, R. Labas, T. Astruc, G. Picard, A. Boudjellal, P. Pelissier, L Bremaud, and A. Ouali. 2010. Postmortem muscle cells die through apoptosis. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 231:485–493.
Beckett, J.L., R.J. Delmore, G.C. Duff, D.A. Yates, D.M. Allen, T.E. Lawrence, and N.A. Elam. 2009. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth rate, feed conversion, and carcass traits in calf-fed Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:4092-4100.
Beere, H.M. 2004. ‘The stress of dying’: the role of heat shock proteins in the regulation of apoptosis. J. Cell Sci. 117:2641–2651.
Behrends, J. M., K.J. Goodson, M. Koohmaraie, S.D. Shackelford, T.L. Wheeler, W.W. Morgan, and J.W. Savell. 2005a. Beef customer satisfaction: USDA quality grade and marination effects on consumer evaluations of top round steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 83:662–670.
Behrends, S.M., R.K. Miller, F.M. Rouquette Jr., R.D. Randel, B.G. Warrington, T.D.A. Forbes, T.H. Welsh, H. Lippke, J.M. Behrends, G.E. Carstens, and J.W. Holloway. 2009. Relationship of temperament, growth, carcass characteristics, and tenderness in beef steers. Meat Sci. 81:433-438.
Bekhit, A. E. D., V. Suwandy, A. Carne, R. van de Ven, and D.L. Hopkins. 2016. Effect of repeated pulsed electric ﬁeld treatment on the quality of hot-boned beef loins and topsides. Meat Sci. 111:139–146.
Belcastro, A.N., J. Scrubb, and J.S. Gilchrist. 1991. Regulation of ATP-stimulated releasable myofilaments from cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibrils. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 103:113–120.
Belcastro, A.N., L.D. Shewchuk, and D.A. Raj. 1998. Exercise-induced muscle injury: A calpain hypothesis. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 179:135–145.
Belitz, H. D., W. Grosch, and P. Schieberle. 2009. Food Chem. Berlin, Germany: Springer.PG
Belk, K.E., J.A. Scanga, A.M. Wylie, D.M. Wulf, J.D. Tatum, and J.O. Reagan. 2000. The use of video image analysis and instrumentation to predict beef palatability. In Proc. 53rd Ann. Reciprocal Meat Conf. Ohio, USA pp.10-15.
Bellinge, R.H.S., D.A. Liberles, S.P.A. Laschi, P.A. O’Brien, and G.K. Kay. 2004. Myostatin and its implications on animal breeding. A review. Anim. Genetics 36:1−6.
Benchaar, C., S. Calsamiglia, A.V. Chaves, G.R. Fraser, D. Colombatto, T.A. McAllister, et. al. 2008. A review of plant-derived essential oils in ruminant nutrition and production. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 145:209–228.
Bender, A. E., and P.E. Ballance. 1961. A preliminary examination of the flavour of meat extract. J. Sci. Food Agric. 12:683-687.
Bennardini, F., A. Wrzosek, and M. Chiesi. 1992. Alpha B-crystallin in cardiac tissue. Association with actin and desmin filaments. Circ. Res. 71:288–294.
Bennett, G. L. 2008. Experimental selection for calving ease and postnatal growth in seven cattle populations. I. Changes in estimated breeding values. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2093–2102.
Bennett, L.L., A.C. Hammond, M.J. Williams, W.E. Kunkle, D.D. Johnson, R.L. Preston, and M.F. Miller. 1995. Performance, carcass yield, and carcass quality characteristics of steers finished on rhizome peanut (Arachis glabrata)-tropical grass pasture or concentrate. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1881–1887.
Berchtold, M.W., H. Brinkmeier, M. Müntener. 2000 Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease. Physiol. Rev. 80:1215-1265.
Berg, R.T. and R.M. Butterfield. 1976. New concepts of cattle growth. Sydney University Press, Univ. of Sydney Australia. p 29.
Berge, P., P. Ertbjerg, L.M. Larsen, T. Astruc, X. Vignon, and A.J. Mùller. 2001. Tenderization of beef by lactic acid injected at different times post mortem. Meat Sci. 57:347–357.
Bernard, C., I. Cassar-Malek, M. Le Cunff, H. Dubroeucq, G. Renand, and J.F. Hocquette. 2007. New indicators of beef sensory quality revealed by expression of specific genes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:5229–5237.
Bernstein, B.E., T.S. Mikkelsen, X. Xie, M. Kamal, D.J. Huebert, J. Cuff, E.S. Lander. 2006. A bivalent chromatin structure marks key developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. Cell 125:315–326.
Berry, B.W., K.F. Leddy, J. Bond, T.S. Rumsey, and A.C. Hammond. 1988. Effects of silage diets and electrical stimulation on the palatability, cooking and pH characteristics of beef loin steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 66: 882-890.
Berry, D.C., and N. Noy. 2009. All-trans-retinoic acid represses obesity and insulin resistance by activating both peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor β/δ and retinoic acid receptor. Molec. Cell. Biol. 29:3286–3296.
Berry, D.C., H. Soltanian, and N. Noy. 2010. Repression of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II during adipocyte differentiation. J. Biol. Chem. 285:15324–15332.
Berry, D.C., D. DeSantis, H. Soltanian, C.M. Croniger, and N. Noy. 2012. Retinoic acid upregulates preadipocyte genes to block adipogenesis and suppress diet-induced obesity. Diabetes 61:1112–1121.
Bertram, H.C., and H.J. Andersen. 2007. NMR and the water-holding issue of pork. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 124:35-42.
Bertram, H.C., S. Dønstrup, A.H. Karlsson, H.J. Andersen, and H. Stødkilde-Jørgensen. 2001. Post mortem energy metabolism and pH development in porcine M. longissimus dorsi as affected by two different cooling regimes. A (31)P-NMR spectroscopic study. Magn. Reson. Imaging 19:993–1000.
Bevilacqua, A.E., and N.E. Zaritzky. 1980. Ice morphology in frozen beef. Intl. J. Food Sci. Tech. 15:589–597.
Bevilacqua, A.E., N.E. Zaritzky, and A. Calvelo. 1979. Histological measurements of ice in frozen beef. Intl. J. Food Sci. and Tech. 14:237–251.
Bickerstaffe, R., A.E.D. Beckit, L.J. Robertson, N. Roberts, and G.H. Gesink. 2001. Impact of introducing specifications on the tenderness of retail meat. Meat Sci. 59:303-315.
Bidner, T.D., W.E. Wyatt, P.E. Humes, D.E. Franke, and D.C. Blouin. 2002. Influence of Brahman-derivative breeds and Angus on carcass traits, physical composition, and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2126-2133.
Bidner,T.D., N.R. Schupp, A.B. Mohamad, N.C. Rumore, R.E. Montgomery, C.P. Bagley, and K.W. Mc Millin. 1986. Acceptability of beef from Angus-Hereford or Angus-Hereford-Brahman steers finished on all forage or a high energy diet. J. Anim. Sci. 62:381–387.
Bidner,T.D., P.E. Humes, W.E. Wyatt, D.E. Franke, M.A. Persica III, G.T. Gentry, and D.C. Blouin. 2009. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford × Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1167–1173.
Bindon, B.M., and N.M. Jones 2001. Cattle supply, production systems and markets for Australian beef. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 41:861–877.
Bjarnadóttir S.G., K. Hollung, E.M. Faergestad, E. Veiseth-Kent. 2010. Proteome changes in bovine longissimus thoracis muscle during the first 48 h postmortem: shifts in energy status and myofibrillar stability. J . Agric. Food Chem. 58:7408-7414.
Bjorklund, E.A., B.J. Heins, A. Dicostanzo, and H. Chester-Jones. 2014. Fatty acid profiles, meat quality, and sensory attributes of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers. J. Dairy Sci. 97:1828–1834.
Black, C., O.P. Chevalier, and C.T. Elliott. 2016. The current and potential applications of ambient mass spectrometry in detecting food fraud. Trends in Anal. Chem. 82:268–287.
Blackmon, T., R.K. Miller, C. Kerth, S.B. Smith. 2015. Ground beef patties prepared from brisket, flank and plate have unique fatty acid and sensory characteristics. Meat Sci. 103:46–53.
Bloomberg, B.D., G.G. Hilton, K.G., Hanger, C.J. Richards, J.B. Morgan, and D.D. VanOverbeke. 2011. Effects of vitamin E on color stability and palatability of strip loin steaks from cattle fed distillers grains. J. Anim. Sci. 89:3769–3782.
Bloomberg, B.D., G.G. Mafi, B.J. Pye, J.L. Wahrmund, C.J. Richards, J.B. Morgan, and D.L. VanOverbeke. 2013. Impact of health management, health treatments, and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass quality, color, and palatability traits in heifers J. Anim. Sci. 91:3465–3473.
Blumberg, J.M., I. Tzameli, I. Astapova, F.S. Lam, J.S. Flier, and A.N. Hollenberg. 2006. Complex role of the vitamin D receptor and its ligand in adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 281:11205–11213.
Boccard, R. 1982. Relationship between muscle hypertrophy and the composition of skeletal muscles. In J. W. B. King, and F. Menissier (Eds.), Muscle hypertrophy of genetic origin and its use to improve beef production, pp. 148−161. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Boehm, M. L., T.L. Kendall, V.F. Thompson, and D.E. Goll. 1998. Changes in the calpains and calpastatin during postmortem storage of bovine muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2415–2434.
Bognar, A. 1998. Comparative study of frying to other cooking techniques influence on the nutritive value. Grasas y Aceites, 49, 250–260.
Bohorov, O., P.J. Buttery, J.H.R.D. Correia, and J.B. Soar. 1987. The effect of the b-2-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol or implantation with oestradiol plus trenbolone acetate on protein metabolism in wether lambs. Brit. J. Nutr. 57:99–107.
Boleman, S.J., R.K. Miller, M.J. Buyck, H.R. Cross, and J.W. Savell. 1996. Influence of realimentation of mature cows on maturity, color stability, and sensory characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 24: 2187-2194.
Boleman, S.L., S.J. Boleman, W.W. Morgan, D.S. Hale, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savel, R.P. Ames, M.T. Smith, J.D. Tatum, T.G. Field, G.C. Smith, B.A. Bardner, J.B. Morgan, S.L. Northcutt, H.G. Dolezal, D.R. Gill, and F.K. Ray. 1998. National Beef Quality Audit-1995: Survey of producer-related defects and carcass quality and quantity attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 76:96-103.
Boles et al., 2008
Boles, J.A., and J.E. Swan. 2002. Processing and sensory characteristics of cooked roast beef:effect of breed, age, gender and storage conditions Meat Sci. 62:419–427.
Boles, J.A., J.G.P. Bowman, D.L. Boss, and L.M.M. Surber. 2005a. Meat color stability affected by barley variety fed in finishing diet to beef steers. Meat Sci. 70:633–638.
Boles J.A., D.L. Boss, K.I. Neary, K.C. Davis, and M.W. Tess. 2009. Growth implants reduced tenderness of steaks from steers and heifers with different genetic potentials for growth and marbling. J. Anim. Sci. 87:269-274.
Bonneau, M., and W. Enright. 1995. Immunocastration in cattle and pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 42:193–200.
Bonnet, M., I. Cassar-Malek, Y. Chillard, and B. Picard. 2010. Ontogenesis of muscle and adipose tissues and their interaction in ruminants and other species. Anim. 4:1093–1109.
Borengasser, S.J., Y. Zhong, P. Kang, F. Lindsey, M.J. Ronis, T.M. Badger, et. al. 2013. Maternal obesity enhances white adipose tissue differentiation and alters genome-scale DNA methylation in male rat offspring. Endocrinology 154:4113–4125.
Bosselmann, A., C. Möller, H. Steinhart, M. Kirchgessner, and F.J. Schwarz. 1995. Pyridinoline cross-links in bovine muscle collagen. J. Food Sci. 60:953–958.
Bost, F., L. Caron, I. Marchetti, C. Dani, Y. Le Marchand-Brustel, and B. Binétruy. 2002. Retinoic acid activation of the ERK pathway is required for embryonic stem cell commitment into the adipocyte lineage. Biochem. J. 361:621–627.
Boucque, C. V., L.O. Fiems, R.J. Moermans, B.G. Cottyn, and M. Sommer. 1994. Effect of cimaterol on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Whiteblue bulls. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 74:707–709.
Bouley J, C. Chambon, and B. Picard. 2004. Mapping of bovine skeletal muscle proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteomics 4:1811-1824.
Bouley J, B. Meunier, C. Chambon, S. De Smet, J.F. Hocquette, B. Picard. 2005. Proteomic analysis of bovine skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Proteomics 5:490-500.
Bouton, P.E., P.V. Harris, and W.R. Shorthose. 1971. Effect of ultimate pH upon the water-holding capacity and tenderness of mutton. J. Food Sci. 36:435–439.
Bouton, P.E., A. Fisher, P.V. Harris, and R.I. Baxter. 1973. A comparison of the effects of some post-slaughter treatments on the tenderness of beef. J. Food Tech. 8:39–49.
Bouyssou, D., T. Marchant, M. Pirlot, P. Perny, A. Tsoukias, and P. Vincke. 2000. Evaluation and decision models a critical perspective. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer’s Academic Publishers 274 pp.
Bowling, M. B., D.J. Vote, K.E. Belk, J.A. Scanga, J.D. Tatum, and G.C. Smith. 2009. Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness. Meat Sci. 82:1–5.
Bowling, R.A., G.C. Smith, Z.L. Carpenter, T.R. Dutson, and W.M. Oliver. 1977. Comparison of forage finished and grain-finished beef carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 45:209.
Bowling, R.A., J.K. Riggs, G.C. Smith, Z.L. Carpenter, R.L. Reddish, and O.D. Butler. 1978. Production, carcass and palatability characteristics of steers produced by different management systems. J. Anim. Sci. 46: 333-340.
Boyer-Berri, C., and M.L. Greaser. 1998. Effect of postmortem storage on the Z-line region of titin in bovine muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1034–1044.
Braghieri, A., C. Pacelli, N. Piazzolla, A. Girolami, and F. Napolitano. 2013. Eating quality of beef from free-range and confined Podolian young bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5885–5893.
Bramblett, V. D., M. D. Judge, and G. E. Vail. 1963. Stress during growth: II. Effects on palatability and cooking characteristics of lamb meat. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1064−1067.
Brandão Cônsolo, N.R., V.B. Ferrari, L.G. Mesquita, R.S. Goulart, and L.F. Prada Silva. 2016, Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves beef yield, changes palatability traits, and increases calpain-calpastatin gene expression in Nellore heifers. Meat Sci. 121:375–381.
Brandon, K., P. Allen, R. Polkinghorne, A. Gee, J. Lau, and M. Drennan. 2006. Testing the meat standards Australia (MSA) model on Irish beef. Proc. 52nd Intl. Congr. Meat, Sci. and Tech. pp. 619–620.
Brandstetter, A.M., B. Picard, and Y. Geay. 1998. Muscle fiber characteristics in four muscles of growing male cattle II. Effect of castration and feeding level. Livest. Prod. Sci. 53:25–36.
Bratcher, C.L., D.D. Johnson, R.C. Littell, and B.L. Gwartney. 2005. The effects of quality grade, aging, and location within muscle on Warner–Bratzler shear force in beef muscles of locomotion. Meat Sci. 70:279–284.
Bratcher, C.L., K.C. Moore, M.P. Keene, and C.L. Lorenzen. 2006. Assessing the foodservice potential of muscles from the chuck. J. Food Ser. 17:143–151.
Brennand, C.P., and R.C. Lindsay. 1992. Distribution of volatile branched-chain fatty-acids in various lamb tissues. Meat Sci. 31:411–421.
Bressan, M.C., L.V. Rossato, E.C. Rodrigues, S.P. Alves, R.J.B. Bessa, E.M. Ramos, and L.T. Gama. 2011. Genotype × environment interactions for fatty acid profiles in Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain. J Anim. Sci. 89:221-232.
Brewer, M.S. 2011. Natural antioxidants: Sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 10:221–247.
Briguet, A., M. Erb, I. Courdier-Fruh, P. Barzaghi, G. Santos, H. Herzner, C. Lescop, H. Siendt, M. Henneboehle, P. Weyermann, J.P. Magyar, J. Dubach-Powell, G. Metz, and T. Meier. 2008. Effect of calpain and proteasome inhibition on Ca2+-dependent proteolysis and muscle histopathology in the mdx mouse. FASEB J. 22:4190–4200.
Broncano, J.M., M.J. Petrón, V. Parra, and M.L. Timón. 2009. Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of free cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in Latissimus dorsi muscle of Iberian pigs. Meat Sci. 83:431–437.
Brooks, J. C., J. B. Belew, D. B. Griffin, B. L. Gwartney, D. S. Hale, W. R. Henning, D. D. Johnson, J. B. Morgan, F. C. Parrish Jr., J. O. Reagan, and J. W. Savell. 2000. National Beef Tenderness Survey –1998. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1852–1860.
Brooks, C. 2007. Marinating of beef for enhancement. Beef facts — Product enhancement: Research Knowledge Management, National Cattlemen Beef Association (Available at: http://www.beefresearch.org/CMDocs/BeefResearch/Marinating%20of%20Beef%20for%20Enhancement.pdf. Accessed 21/01/2012).
Brooks, J.C., and J.W. Savell. 2004. Perimysium thickness as an indicator of beef tenderness. Meat Sci. 67:329–334.
Brooks, M.A., C.W. Choi, D.K. Lunt, H. Kawachi, and S.B. Smith. 2011. Subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue stearoil-coenzyme A desaturase gene expression and fatty acid composition in calf- and yearling-fed Angus steers. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2556-2570.
Brophy, C.M., M. Dickinson, and D. Woodrum. 1999. Phosphorylation of the small heat shock-related protein, HSP20, in vascular smooth muscles is associated with changes in the macromolecular associations of HSP20. J. Biol. Chem. 274:6324–6329.
Brown, H.G., S.L. Mlton, M.J. Riemann, and W.R. Backus. 1979. Effects of energy intake and food source on chemical changes and flavor of ground beef during frozen storage. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 338-347.
Brown, M.A., A.H. Brown, W.G. Jackson,and J.R. Miesner. 2000. Genotype × environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common Bermuda grass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages. J. Anim. Sci. 78:546–551.
Brugiapaglia, A., and G. Destefanis. 2012. Effect of cookingmethod on the nutritional value of Piedmontese beef. Meat Sci. 92:165–301.
Brule, C., E. Dargelos, R. Diallo, A. Listrat, D. Bechet, P. Cottin, and S. Poussard. 2010. Proteomic study of calpain interacting proteins during skeletal muscle aging. Biochim. 92:1923–1933.
Bruns, K.W., R.H. Pritchard, and D.L. Boggs. 2004. The relationships among body weight, body composition, and intramuscular fat content in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1315–1322.
Brunsø, K., L. Bredahl, K.G. Grunert, and J. Scholderer. 2005. Consumer perception of the quality of beef resulting from various fattening regimes. Livest. Prod. Sci. 94:83–93.
Bryant, T.C., J.J. Wagner, J.D. Tatum, M.L. Galyean, R.V. Anthony, and T.E. Engle. 2010. Effect of dietary supplemental vitamin A concentration on performance, carcass merit, serum metabolites, and lipogenic enzyme activity in yearling beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1463–1478.
Buettner, A., C. Beer, M. Hannig, M. Settles, and P. Schieberle. 2002. Physiological and analytical studies on flavor perception dynamics as induced by eating and swallowing process. Food Qual. and Pref. 13: 497-504.
Bumpus, E.K., J.E. Sawyer, T.D.A. Forbes, B.G. Warrington, and J.W. Holloway. 2005. Influence of acetagenic versus propiogenic supplements on adipose tissue accretion in stocker steers grazing ryegrass pastures. Beef Cattle Research in Texas, Dept. Anim. Sci., TAMU, ge Sta. TX 2005:31-34.
Bureš, D., L. Bartoň, R. Zahradkova, V. Teslik, and M. Krejčova. 2006. Chemical composition, sensory characteristics, and fatty acid profile of muscle from Aberdeen Angus, Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford bulls. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 51:279–284.
Burnham, D. L., R.W. Purchas, and S.T. Morris. 2005. Relationships between on-farm and pre-slaughter behaviour, and growth and meat quality for bulls and steers. Proc. N. Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 65:261–265.
Burrow, H.M. 1997. Measurements of temperament and their relationships with performance traits of beef cattle. Anim. Breed. Abstr. 65:477–495.
Burrow, H.M. 2001. Variances and covariances between productive and adaptive traits and temperament in a composite breed of tropical beef cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 70:213–233.
Burrow, H.M., and R.D. Dillon. 1997. Relationships between temperament and growth in a feedyard and commercial carcass traits of Bos indicus crossbreds. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 37:407–411.
Burrow, H.M., and N.J. Corbet. 2000. Genetic and environmental factors affecting temperament of Zebu and Zebu-derived beef cattle grazed at pasture in the tropics. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 55:155–162.
Burrow, H.M., G.W. Seifert, and N.J. Corbet. 1998. A new technique for measuring temperament in cattle. Proc. Austr. Soc. Anim. Prod. 17:154-157.
Burrow, H.M., S.S. Moore, D.J. Johnston, W. Barendse, and B.M. Bindon. 2001. Quantitative and molecular genetic influences on properties of beef: A review. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 41:893–919.
Busboom. J.R., and J.J. Reeves. 2013. JAPANESE MEAT GRADING. Washington State University Pullman, WA. Available at http://www.nikuya.ca/products/JapaneseMeatGrading.pdf. Retrieved 7-11-2013.
Busch, W.A., M.H. Stromer, D.E. Goll, and A. Suzuki. 1972. Ca2+- specific removal of z lines from rabbit skeletal muscle. J. Cell Biol. 52:367–381.
Butterfield, D.A., and E.R. Stadtman. 1997. Protein oxidation processes in aging brain. Adv. Cell Aging and Gerontology 2:161–191.
Buttriss, J.L., and A.T. Diplock. 1988. The relationship between alpha-tocopherol and phospholipid fatty acids in rat liver subcellular membrane fractions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 962:81–90.
Byrne, C.E., G. Downey, D. Troy, and D. Buckley. 1998. Non-destructive prediction of selected quality attributes of beef by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Meat Sci. 49:399-409.
Byrnea, D.V., W.L.P Brediea, D.S. Mottram, and M. Martens. 2002. Sensory and chemical investigations on the effect of oven cooking on warmed-over flavour development in chicken meat. Meat Sci. 61:127–139.
Café, L.M., D.L. Robinson, D.M. Ferguson, B.L. McIntyre, G.H. Geesink, and P.L. Greenwood. 2011. Cattle temperament: Persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits. J. Anim. Sci. 89:1452–1465.
Café, L.M., B.L. McIntyre, D.L. Robinson, G.H. Geesink, W. Barendse, and P.L. Greenwood. 2010a. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 88:3047–3058.
Café, L.M., B.L. McIntyre, D.L. Robinson, G.H. Geesink, W. Barendse, D.W. Pethick, J.M. Thompson, and P.L. Greenwood. 2010b. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 88:3059–3069.
Calkins, C.R., and J.M. Hodgen. 2007. A fresh look atmeat flavour. Meat Sci. 77:63–80.
Calkins, C.R., and G. Sullivan. 2007. Ranking of Beef Muscles for Tenderness. Org: NCBA. www.Beefresearch.
Calkins, C.R., and G. Sullivan. 2012. Ranking of beef muscles for tenderness. Beef Facts: Product Enhancement. www.beefrewsearch.org.
Calkins, C.R., S.C. Seideman, and J.D. Crouse. 1987. Relationships between rate of growth, catheptic enzymes and meat palatability in young bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 64:1448–1457.
Calkins, C.R., T.R. Duston, G.C. Smith, Z.L. Carpenter, and G.W. Davis. 1981. Relationship of fiber type composition to marbling and tenderness of bovine muscle. J. Food Sci. 46:708–715.
Camfield, P.K., A.. Brown Jr., P.K. Lewis, L.Y. Rakes, and Z.B. Johnson. 1997. Effects of frame size and time on feed on carcass characteristics, sensory attributes, and fatty acid profiles of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1837-1844.
Camou, J.P., J. A. Marchello, V. F. Thompson, S. W. Mares, and D. E. Goll. 2007. Effect of postmortem storage on activity of μ- and m-calpain in five bovine muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2670–2681.
Campbell, R.E., M.C. Hunt, P. Levis, and E. Chambers IV. 2001. Dryaging effect on palatability of beef longissimus muscle. J. Food Sci. 66:196–199.
Campo,M. M., C. Sanudo, B. Panea, P. Albert, and P. Santolaria. 1999. Breed type and aging time effects on sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks. Meat Sci. 51:383–390.
Campo, M.M., G.R. Nute, J.D. Wood, S.J. Elmore, D.S. Mottram, and M. Enser. 2003. Modeling the effect of fatty acids in odour development of cooked meat in vitro: Part I—sensory perception. Meat Sci. 63:367–375.
Campo, M.M., G.R. Nute, S.I. Hughes, M. Enser, J.D. Wood, and R.I. Richardson. 2006. Flavour perception of oxidation in beef. Meat Sci. 72:303–311.
Campo, M.M., P. Santolaria, C. Sanudo, J. Lepetit, J.L. Olleta, B. Panea, and P. Alberti. 2000. Assessment of breed type and aging time effects on beef meat quality using two different texture devices. Meat Sci. 55:371–378.
Candek-Potokar, M., B. Zlender, L. Lefaucheur, and M. Bonneau. 1998. Effects of age and/ or weight at slaughter on longissimus dorsi muscle: Biochemical traits and sensory quality in pigs. Meat Sci. 48:287–300.
Cao, J.-X., C.-R. Ou, Y.-F. Zou, K.-P. Ye, Q.-Q. Zhang, M. A. Khan, D.-D. Pan, and G. Zhou. 2013. Activation of caspase-3 and its correlation with shear force in bovine skeletal muscles during postmortem conditioning. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4547–4552.
Carlin, K.M., G.P. Lardy, R.J. Maddock, B.R. Ilse, and V.L. Anderson. 2006. Field pea inclusion in high grain diets for beef heifers improves beef tenderness without altering performance. J. Anim. Sci. 84:36. (Abstr.)
Carmack, C.F., C.T. Kastner, M.E. Dikeman, J.R. Schwerke, and C.M. Garcia-Zepeda. 1993. Sensory evaluation of beef flavor intensity, tenderness, and juiciness among major muscles. Meat Sci. 39:143–147.
Carpenter, C.E., D.P. Cornforth, and D. Whittier. 2001. Consumer preferences for beef color and packaging did not affect eating satisfaction. Meat Sci. 57:359–363.
Carpenter, C.E., O.D. Rice, N.E. Cockett, and G.D. Snowder. 1996. Histology and composition of muscles from normal and callipyge lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:388–393.
Carpenter, J.W., A.Z. Palmer, W.G. Kirk, F.M. Peacock, and M. Koger. 1961. Slaughter and carcass characteristics of Brahman anBrahman-Shorthorn crossbred steers. J. Anim. Sci. 20:336.
Carrapiso, A.I. 2007. Effect of fat content on flavour release from sausages. Food Chem. 103:396–403.
Carter, J.N., P.A. Ludden, M.S. Kerley, M. Ellersieck, W.O. Herring, and E. Berg. 2002. Intramuscular fat deposition in steers is accelerated at a set body weight. Prof. Anim. Sci. 18:135–140.
Carvalho, M.E., G. Gasparin, M.D. Poleti, A.F. Rosa, J.C. Carvalho-Balieiro, C.A. Labate, R.T. Nassu, R.R. Tullio, L.C.A. Regitano, G.B. Mourão, L.L. Coutinho. 2014. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed. Meat Sci. 96:1318–1324
Casas, E., J.W. Keele, S.D. Shackelford, M. Koohmaraie, T.S. Sonstegard, T.P. Smith, et. al. 1998. Association of the muscle hypertrophy locus with carcass traits in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:468−473.
Casas, E., S.N. White, T.L. Wheeler, S.D. Shackelford, M. Koohmaraie, D.G. Riley, et al. 2006. Effects of calpastatin and l-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits. J. Anim. Sci. 84:520–525.
Cassar-Malek, I., J.F. Hocquette, C. Jurie, A. Listrat, R. Jailler, D. Bauchart, T. Briand, and B. Picard. 2004. Muscle-specific metabolic, histochemical and biochemical responses to a nutritionally induced discontinuous growth path. J. Anim. Sci. 79:49–59.
Cecchi, L.A., D.L. Huffman, W.R. Egbert, and W.R. Jones. 1988. Chemical and physical characteristics of beef chuck muscles. Effect of electrical stimulation, hot-boning, and high temperature conditioning. J. Food Sci. 53:411–415.
Cerny, C., and W. Grosch. 1992. Evaluation of potent odorants in roasted beef by aromaextract dilution analysis. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel Untersuchung und Forschung 194:322–325.
Chambaz, A., M.R.L. Scheeder, M. Kreuzerb, P.A. Dufey. 2003. Meat quality of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers compared at the same intramuscular fat content. Meat Sci. 63:491–500.
Chan, K.M., and E.A. Decker. 1994. Endogenous skeletal muscle antioxidants. Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 34:403–426.
Chan, W.K.M., K. Hakkarainen, C. Faustman, D.M. Schaefer, K.K. Scheller, and Q. Liu. 1996. Dietary vitamin E effect on color stability and sensory assessment of spoilage in three beef muscles. Meat Sci. 42:387–399.
Chang, M.L., P.J. Artymiuk, X. Wu, S. Hollán, A. Lammi, and L.E. Maquat. 1993. Human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency resulting from mutation of Phe-240. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 52:1260–1269.
Channon, H.A., A. Payne, and R.D. Warner. 2000. Halothane genotype, pre-slaughter handling and stunning method all influence pork quality. Meat Sci. 56:291−299.
Chawla, A., J.J. Repa, R.M. Evans, and D.J. Mangelsdorf. 2001. Nuclear receptors and lipid physiology: opening the X-files. Sci. 294:1866–1870.
Chen, J., and C.T. Ho. 1998. The flavour of pork. In F. Shahidi (Ed.), Flavor of meat, meat products and seafoods, pp. 62–83. London: Blackie Academic Professional.
Chen, L., X. C. Feng, F. Lu, X.L. Xu,G.H. Zhou, G.Y. Li, and X.Y. Guo. 2011. Effects of camptothecin, etoposide and Ca2+ on caspase-3 activity and myofibrillar disruption of chicken during postmortem aging. Meat Sci. 87:165–174.
Chevance, F.F.V., and L.J. Farmer. 1999. Release of volatile odor compounds from full and low-fat frankfurters. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47:5161–5168.
Chevance, F.F.V., L.J. Farmer, E.M. Desmond, E. Novelli, D.J. Troy, and R. Chizzolini. 2000. Effects of some fat replacers on the release of volatile aroma compounds from low-fat meat products. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48:3476–3484.
Chi, N.C., and J.S. Karliner. 2004. Molecular determinants of responses to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: Focus on hypoxia-inducible and heat shock factors. Cardiovasc. Res. 61:437–447.
Childs, K.D., D.W. Goad, M.F. Allan, D. Pomp, C. Krehbiel, R.D. Geisert, and J.R. Malayer. 2002. Differential expression of NAT1 translational repressor during development of bovine intramuscular adipocytes. Physiol. Genomics 10:49–56.
Choat, W.T., J.A. Paterson, B.M. Rainey, M.C. King, G.C. Smith, K.E. Belk, and R.J. Lipsey. 2006. The effects of cattle sex on carcass characteristics and longissimus muscle palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1820-1826.
Choat, W.T., C.R. Krehbiel, G.C. Duff, R.E. Kirksey, L.M. Lauriault, J.D. Rivera, B.M. Capitan, D.A. Walker, G.B. Donart, and C.L. Goad. 2003. Infl uence of grazing dormant native range or winter wheat pasture on subsequent fi nishing cattle performance, carcass characteristic, and ruminal metabolism. J. Anim. Sci. 81:3191-3201.
Choe, J.H., Y.M. Choi, S.H. Lee, H.G. Shin, Y.C. Ryu, K.C. Hong, and B.C. Kim. 2008. The relationship between glycogen, lactate content and muscle fiber type composition, and their influence on postmortem glycolytic rate and pork quality. Meat Sci. 80:355–362.
Choe, S-H, A. Stewart and Y.H.B. Kim. 2016. Effect of different aging temperatures prior to freezing on meat quality attributes of frozen/thawed lamb loins. Meat Sci. 116: 158-164.
Choi, S.H. G.O. Gang, J.E. Sawyer, B.J. Johnson, K.H. Kim, C.W. Choi, and S.B. Smith. 2013. Fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedyard steers fed supplementary palm oil or soybean oil. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2091-2098.
Choi, Y.M., and B.C. Kim. 2009. Muscle fiber characteristics, myofibrillar protein isoforms, and meat quality. Livest. Sci. 122:105-118.
Chriki, S., B. Picard, C. Jurie, M. Reichstadt, D. Micol, J.P. Brun, L. Journaux, and J.F. Hocquette. 2012a. Meta-analysis of the comparison of the metabolic and contractile characteristics of two bovine muscles: Longissimus thoracis and Semitendinosus. Meat Sci. 91:423–429.
Chriki, S., G.E. Gardner, C. Jurie, B. Picard, D. Micol, J.P. Brun, L. Journaux, and J.F. Hocquette. 2012b. Cluster analysis application in search ofmuscle biochemical determinants for beef tenderness. BMC Biochem. 13:29.
Christensen, S., and P.P. Purslow. 2016. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in muscle and adipose tissue development and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 119:138–146
Christensen, S., P.P. Purslow, and L.M. Larsen. 2000. The effect of cooking temperature on mechanical properties of whole meat, single muscle fibers and perimysial connective tissue. Meat Sci. 55:301–307.
Chung, K.Y., D.K. Lunt, C.B. Choi, S.H. Chae, R.D. Rhoades, T.H. Adams, B. Booren, and S.B. Smith. 2006. Lipid characteristics of subcutaneous adipose tissue and M. longissimus thoracis of Angus and Wagyu steers fed to us and Japanese endpoints. Meat Sci. 73:432–441.
Church, D.C. 1988. The ruminant animal. Digestive physiology and nutrition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. p. 401–420.
Cianzio, D.S., D.G. Topel, G.B. Whitehurst, D.C., Beitz, and H.L. Self. 1985. Adipose tissue growth and cellularity: Changes in bovine adipocyte size and number. J. Anim. Sci. 60:970–976.
Clarke, F. M., P. Stephan, G. Huxham, D. Hamilton, and D. J. Morton. 1984. Metabolic dependence of glycolytic enzyme binding in rat and sheep heart. Eur. J. Biochem. 138:643–649.
Clarke, F. M., F. D. Shaw, and D. J. Morton. 1980. Effect of electrical stimulation post mortem of bovine muscle on the binding of glycolytic enzymes: Functional and structural implications. Biochem. J. 186:105–109.
Clarke, N.F., B. Ilkovski, S. Cooper, V.A. Valova, P.J. Robinson, I. Nonaka, K. North. 2007. The pathogenesis of ACTA1-related congenital fiber type disproportion. Ann. Neurol. 61:552–561.
Clayton, R.P., J.D. Tatum, and R.A. Bowling. 1981. Effects of carcass maturity and feeding regimen on palatability traits of beef. J. Anim. Sci.
Cluff, K., K.N. Govindarajan, J. Subbiah, A. Samal,and C.R. Calkins. 2013. Optical scattering with hyperspectral imaging to classify longissimus dorsi muscle based on beef tenderness using multivariate modeling. Meat Sci. 95:42–50.
Cluff, K., N.G. Konda, J. Subbiah, R. Lu, C.R. Calkins, C. R., and A. Samal. 2008. Optical scattering in beef steak to predict tenderness using hyperspectral imaging in the VIS–NIR region. Sens. and Instrument. Food Qual. Saf., 2:189–196.
Cockett, N.E., S.P. Jackson, T.L. Shay, D. Nielsen, S.S. Moore, M.R. Steele, W. Barendse, R.D. Green, and M. Georges. 1994. Chromosomal localization of the callipyge gene in sheep (Ovis aries) using bovine DNA markers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91:3019–3123.
Coleman, S.W., R.H. Gallavan, C.B. Williams, W.A. Phillips, J.D. Volesky, S. Rodriguez, and G.L. Bennett. 1995. Silage or limitfed grain growing diets for steers: I. Growth and carcass quality. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2609–2620.
Colle, M.J., R.P. Richard, K.M. Killinger, J.C. Bohlscheid, A.R. Gray, W.I. Loucks, R.N. Day, A.S. Cochran, J.A. Nasados, and M.E. Doumit. 2015. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the gluteus medius and longissimus lumborum. Meat Sci. 110:32–39.
Colle, M.J., R.P. Richard, K.M. Killinger, J.C. Bohlscheid, A.R. Gray,W.I. Loucks, R.N.Day, A.S. Cochran, J.A. Nasados, and M.E. Doumit. 2016. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the biceps femoris and semimembranosus. Meat Sci. 119:110–117.
Conforth, D. 1994. Color: Its basis and importance. In A. M. Pearson, and T. R. Dutson, Quality attributes and their measurement in meat, poultry and fish products. Advances in meat research series (pp. 35-77). Glasgow: Blackie Academic and Professional.
Cook,W.S., A.V. Yeldandi, M.S. Rao, T. Hashimoto, and J.K. Reddy. 2000. Less extrahepatic induction of fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes by PPAR alpha. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 278:250–257.
Corbin, C.H., T.G. O’Quinn, A.J. Garmyn, J.F. Legak, M.R. Hunt, T.T.N. Dinh, R.J. Rathmann, J.C. Brooks, and M.F. Miller. 2015. Sensory evaluation of tender beef strip loin steaks of varying marbling levels and quality treatments. Meat Sci. 100:24–31.
Cornforth, D.P., A.M. Pearson, and R.A. Merkel. 1980. Relationship of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum to cold shortening. Meat Sci. 4:103–121.
Cornu, A., N. Kondjoyan, J.P. Frencia, and J.L. Berdague. 2001. Deciphering the message from volatile components of fat tissues. Viandes Product Carnes 22: 35-38.
Cosentino, E., A. Girolatni, A. Pelosi, and D. Matassino. 1980. Qualitative characteristics of meat in lamb born from ewes subjected to hormonal synchronization of oestrus. Proceed. Europ. Mtg. meat res. wkrs, 286–289.
Cranwell, C.D., J.A. Unruh, J.R. Brethour, and D.D. Simms. 1996b. Influence of steroid implants and concentrate feeding on carcass and longissimus. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1777–1783.
Cranwell, C.D., J.A. Unruh, J.R. Brethour, D.D. Simms, and R.E. Campbell. 1996a. Influence of steroid implants and concentrates feeding on performance and carcass composition of cull beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1770–1776.
Crocker, E.C. 1948. Flavor of meat. Food Res. 13:179-183.
Cross, H.R., Z.L. Carpenter, and G.C. Smith. 1973. Effects of intramuscular collagen and elastin on bovine muscle tenderness. J. Food Sci. 38:998–1003.
Cross, H.R., B.W. Berry, and L.H. Wells. 1980. Effects of fat level and source on the chemical, sensory, and cooking properties of ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 45:791–794.
Cross, H.R., D.A. Gilliland, P.R. Durland, and S. Seideman. 1983. Beef carcass evaluation by use of a video image analysis system. J. Anim. Sci. 57:910–917.
Crouse, J.D., H.R. Cross, and S.C. Seideman. 1984. Effects of a grass or grain diet on the quality of three beef muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 58:619–625.
Crouse, J.D., H.R. Cross, and S.C. Seideman. 1985. Effects of sex condition, genotype, diet and carcass electrical stimulation on the collagen content and palatability of two bovine muscles.
Crouse, J.D., M. Koohmaraie, and S.D. Seideman. 1991. The relationship of muscle fiber size to tenderness of beef. Meat Science, 30, 295–302.
Crouse, J.D., J.R. Busboom, R.A. Field, and C.L. Ferrell. 1981. The effects of breed, diet, sex, location and slaughter weight on lamb growth, carcass composition and meat flavor. J. Anim. Sci. 57:1146–1153.
Crouse, J.D., L.V. Cundiff, R.M. Koch, M. Koohmaraie, and Seideman. 1989. Comparison of Bos indicus and Bos taurus inheritance for carcass beef characteristics and meat palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2661-2668.
Cruzen, S.M., A.J. Harris, K. Hollinger, R.M. Punt, J.K. Grubbs, J.T. Selsby, J.C.M. Dekkers, N.K. Gabler, S.M. Lonergan, and E. Huff-Lonergan. 2013. Evidence of decreased muscle protein turnover in gilts selected for low residual feed intake. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4007–4016.
Curley, K.O., Jr., J.C. Paschal, T.H. Welsh, Jr., and R.D. Randel. 2006. Technical note: Exit velocity as a measure of cattle temperament is repeatable and associated with serum concentration of cortisol in Brahman bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 84:3100–3103.
Dahlmann, B., L. Kuehn, and H. Reinauer. 1986. Identification of two alkaline proteinases from rat skeletal muscle. In V. Tur (Ed.), Cysteine proteinases and their inhibitors,pp. 133–146. New York: Walter de Guyter.
D’Alessandro, A., and L. Zolla. 2011. The SODyssey: superoxide dismutases from biochemistry, through proteomics, to oxidative stress, aging and nutraceuticals. Expert Rev. Proteomics 8:405-421.
D’Alessandro, A. and L. Zolla. 2013. Review Meat science: From proteomics to integrated omics towards system biology. J. Proteomics. 78:558-577.
D’Alessandro, A, C. Marrocco, V. Zolla, M. D’Andrea, L. Zolla. 2011. Meat quality of the longissimus lumborum muscle of Casertana and LargeWhite pigs: metabolomics and proteomics intertwined. J. Proteomics 75:610-627.
D’Alessandro A., S. Rinalducci, C. Marrocco, V. Zolla, F. Napolitano, and L. Zolla. 2012a. Love me tender: an Omics window on the bovine meat tenderness network. J. Proteomics 2:4360-4380.
D’Alessandro, A., C. Marrocco, S. Rinalducci, C. Mirasole, S. Failla, and L. Zolla. 2012b. Chianina beef tenderness investigated through integrated Omics. J. Proteomics 75:4381-4398.
Damez, J.L., and S. Clerjon. 2013. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: An overview. Meat Sci. 95:879–896.
Damon, R.A., Jr., R.M. Crown, C.B. Singletary, and S.E. McCraine. 1960. Carcass characteristics of purebred and crossbred beef steers in the Gulf Coast region. J. Anim. Sci. 19:820.
Dani, C., A.G. Smith, S. Dessolin, P. Leroy, L. Staccini, P. Villageois, et. al. 1997. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into adipocytes in vitro. J. Cell Sci. 110:1279–1285.
Daniel, M.J., M.E. Dikeman, A.M. Arnett, and M.C. Hunt. 2009. Effects of dietary vitamin A restriction during finishing on color display life, lipid oxidation, and sensory traits of longissimus and triceps brachii steaks from early and traditionally weaned steers. Meat Sci. 81:15–21.
Dannenberger, D., K. Nuernberg, G. Nuernberg, N. Scollan, H. Steinhart, and K. Ender. 2005. Effect of pasture vs. concentrate diet on CLA isomer distribution in different tissue lipids of beef cattle. Lipids 40:589-598.
Dannenberger, D., G. Nuernberg, N. Scollan, W. Schabbel, H. Steinhart, K. Ender, and K. Nuernberg. 2004. Effect of diet on the deposition of n3fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and C18:1trans fatty acid isomers in muscle lipids of German Holstein bulls. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 6607-6615.
Dargelos, E., S. Poussard, C. Brule, L. Daury, and P. Cottin. 2008. Calcium-dependent proteolytic system and muscle dysfunctions: A possible role of calpains in sarcopenia. Biochimie 90:359-368.
Davey, C.L., and K.V. Gilbert. 1969. Studies in meat tenderness. 7. Changes in the fine structure of meat during aging. J. Food Sci. 34:69–74.
Davis, G.W., A.B. Cole,W.R. Backus, and S.L. Melton. 1981. Effect of electrical stimulation on carcass quality and meat palatability of beef from forage and grain finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 53:651–657.
Dayton, W.R., D.E. Goll, M.G. Zeece, R.M. Robson, and W.J. Reville. 1976. A Ca2+-activated protease possibly involved in myofibrillar protein turnover. Purification from porcine muscle. Biochem. 15:2150–2158.
de Barcellos, M.D., J.O. Kugler, K.G. Grunert, L. Van Wezemael, F.J.A. Perez-Cueto, O. Ueland, et al. 2010. European consumers’ acceptance of beef processing technologies: A focus group study. Innov. Food Sci. and Emerg. Tech. 11:721–732.
De Smet, S., K. Raes, and D. Demeyer. 2004. Meat fatty acid composition as affected by fatness and genetic factors: A review. Anim. Res. 53:81–98.
de The, H., M.M. Vivanco-Ruiz, P. Tiollais, H. Stunnenberg, and A. Dejean. 1990. Identification of a retinoic acid responsive element in the retinoic acid receptor beta gene. Nature 343:177–180.
Decker, E.A., S.A. Livisay, and S. Zhou. 2000. Mechanisms of endogenous skeletal muscle antioxidants: Chemical and physical aspects. In E. A. Decker, C. Faustman, and C. J. Lopez-Bote (Eds.), Antioxidants in muscle foods: Nutritional strategies to improve quality, pp. 25–60. New York: Wiley Interscience.
Dedieu, S., S. Poussard, G. Mazeres, F. Grise, E. Dargelos, P. Cottin, and J. J. Brustis. 2004. Myoblast migration is regulated by calpain through its involvement in cell attachment and cytoskeletal organization. Exp. Cell Res. 292:187–200.
Delgado, E.F., G.H. Geesink, J.A. Marchello, D.E. Goll, and M. Koohmaraie. 2001. Properties of myofibril-bound calpain activity in longissimus muscle of callipyge and normal sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2097–2107.
Denhertogmeischke, M.J.A., F.J.M. Smulders, J.G. Vanlogtestijn, and F. Vanknapen. 1997. Effect of electrical stimulation on the water-holding capacity and protein denaturation of two bovine muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 75:118–124.
Depenbusch, B.E., C.M. Coleman, J.J. Higgins, and J.S. Drouillard. 2009. Effects of increasing levels of dried corn distillers grains with soluble on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of yearling heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2653–2663.
DeRouen, S.M., D.E. Franke, T.D. Bidner, and D.C. Blouin. 1992. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3677–3685.
Descalzo, A.M., E.M. Insani, A. Biolatte, A.M. Sancho, P.T. Garcia, N.A. Pensel, and J.A. Josifovich. 2005. Influence of pasture or grain based diets supplemented with vitamin E on antioxidant/oxidative balance of Argentine beef. Meat Sci. 70: 35-44.
Desmond, E. 2006. Reducing salt: A challenge for the meat industry. Meat Sci. 74:188–196.
Destefanis, G., A. Brugiapaglia, M.T. Barge, and C. Lazzaroni. 2003. Effect of castration on meat quality in Piemontese cattle. Meat Sci. 64:215–218.
Devine, C.E., M.A. Wahlgren, and E. Tornberg. 1996. The effects of rigor temperature on shortening and meat tenderness. 42nd Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech., Lillehammer, Norway, 42:396–397.
Devine, C.E., S. Ellery, L. Wade, and B.B. Chrystall. 1984. Differential effects of electrical stunning on the early post-mortem glycolysis in sheep. Meat Sci. 11:308–309.
Di Luca A, A.M. Mullen, G. Elia, G Davey, R.M. Hamill. 2011. Centrifugal drip is an accessible source for protein indicators of pork aging and water-holding capacity. Meat Sci. 88:261-270.
Dickerson, G.E. 1969. Experimental approaches in utilizing breed resources. Anim. Breed. 37:191–202 Abstr.
Dickerson, G.E. 1973. Inbreeding and heterosis in animals. In L. V. Cundiff (Ed.), Proc. Animal Breeding and Genetics Symposium in Honor of Jay L. Lush. Champaign, IL: Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. Dairy Sci. Assn. 54-77.
Dıez, J., J.J. Del Coz, A. Bahamonde, C. Sanudo, J.L. Olleta, S. Macie, M.M. Campo , B. Panea, and P. Albertı. 2006. Identifying market segments in beef: Breed, slaughter weight and aging time implications. Meat Sci. 74:667–675
Dikeman, M.E. 1987. Fat reduction in animals and the effects on palatability and consumer acceptance of meat products. In: Proc. Am. Meat Sci. Assoc. Natl. Livest. Meat Board. pp. 93–103.
Dikeman, M.E., E. Obuz, V. Gök, L. Akkaya, and S. Stroda. 2013. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks. Meat Sci. 94:228–233.
Dikeman, M.E., E.J. Pollak, Z. Zhang, D.W. Moser, C.A. Gill, and E.A. Dressler. 2005. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2461-2467.
Dikeman, M.E., G.B. Reddy, V.H. Arthaud, H. J. Tuma, R.M. Koch, R.W. Mandigo and J.B. Axe. 1986. Longissimus muscle quality, palatability, connective tissue, and histological characteristics of bulls and steers fed different energy levels and slaughtered at four ages. J. Anim. Sci. 63:92-101.
Dinh, T.T.N., J.R. Blanton, Jr., D.G. Riley, C.C. Chase, Jr., S.W. Coleman, W.A. Phillips, J.C. Brooks, M.F. Miller, and L.D. Thompson. 2010. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 88:756-766.
Dirks, A., and C. Leeuwenburgh. 2002. Apoptosis in skeletal muscle with aging. Am. J. Physiol. Reg. Integr. Compar. Physiol. 282:R519–R527.
Dixon, C.L., D.R. Woerner, R.J. Tokach, P.L. Chapman, T.E. Engle, J.D. Tatum, and K.E. Belk. 2012. Quantifying the “aging response” and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round. J. Anim. Sci. 90:996–1007.
DOCE. 2005. Reglamento CE Nº 1/2005 del Consejo de 22 de diciembre de 2004 relativo a la protección de los animales durante el transporte y las operaciones conexas por el que se modifican las directivas 64/432/CEE y 93/119/CE y el reglamento (CE) nº 1255/97.
Dransfield, E. 1977. Intramuscular composition and texture of beef muscles. J. Sci. Food Agric. 28:842-844.
Dransfield, E. 1992. Modelling post-mortem tenderisation–III: Role of calpain I in conditioning. Meat Sci. 31:85−94.
Dransfield, E. 1993. Modelling post-mortem tenderisation-IV: Role of calpains and calpastatin in conditioning. Meat Sci. 34:217−234.
Dransfield, E. 1994. Modelling post mortem tenderisation — V: Inactivation of calpains. Meat Sci. 37:391−409.
Dransfield, E., and D.N. Rhodes. 1976. Effect of post-rigor muscle length on the texture of meat. J. Sci. Food Agric. 27:483−486.
Dransfield, E., M.A. Francombe, and O.P. Whelehan. 1984. Relationships between sensory attributes in cooked meat. J. Text. Stud. 15:33–48.
Dransfield, E., D.K. Wakefield, and I.D. Parkman. 1992. Modelling post-mortem tenderisation — I: Texture of electrically stimulated and non-stimulated beef. Meat Sci. 31:57−73.
Dransfield, E., D.J. Etherington, and M.A.J. Taylor. 1992. Modelling post-mortem tenderisation — II: Enzyme changes during storage of electrically stimulated and non-stimulated beef. Meat Sci. 31:75−84.
Dransfield, E., J.F. Martin, D. Bauchart, S. Abouelkaram, J. Lepetit, J. Culioli, C. Jurie, and B. Picard. 2003. Meat quality and composition of three muscles from French cull cows and young bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 76:387–399.
Drey, L.N., L. L. Prill, B.A. Olson, E.A. Rice, J.M. Gonzalez, J.L. Vipham, T.A. Houser, E.A.E. Boyle, and T.G. O’Quinn. 2019. Evaluation of marbling and enhancement’s abilities to compensate for reduced beef palatability at elevated degrees of doneness. J. Anim. Sci. 97:669–686.
Drumm, T.D., and A.M. Spanier. 1991. Changes in the content of lipid autoxidation and Sulfurcontaining compounds in cooked beef during storage. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 39: 336-343.
Du, M.,B. Wang, X. Fu, Q. Yang, and M.J. Zhu. 2015. Fetal programming in meat production. Meat Sci. 109:40–47.
Du, M., Y. Huang, A.K. Das, Q. Yang, M.S. Duarte, M.V. Dodson, and M.J. Zhu. 2013. Manipulating mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to optimize performance and carcass value of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1419–1427.
Du, C.J. and D.W. Sun. 2004. Recent developments in the applications of image processing techniques for food quality evaluation. Trends Food Sci. and Tech. 15:230–249.
Du, M., and M.J. Zhu. 2009. Fetal programming of skeletal muscle development. In M. Du, and R. J. McCormick (Eds.), Applied muscle biology and meat science, pp. 81−96. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Du, M., J. Yin, and M.J. Zhu. 2010. Cellular signaling pathways regulating the initial stage of adipogenesis and marbling of skeletal muscle. Meat Sci. 86:103–109.
Du, M., J. Tong, J.F. Zhao, J. Zhao, K.R. Underwood, M. Zhu, S.P. Ford, and W. Nathanielsz. 2010a. Fetal programming of skeletal muscle development in ruminant animals. J. Anim. Sci. 88:E51−E60.
Du, M., Y. Huang, A.K. Das, Q. Yang, M.S. Duarte, M.V. Dodson, and M.J. Zhu. 2010b. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: Manipulating mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to optimize performance and carcass value of beef cattle.
Duarte,M.S., P.V.R. Paulino, A.K. Das, S. Wei, N.V.L. Serao, X Fu, et. al. 2013. Enhancement of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis in skeletal muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2938–2946.
Dube, G., V.D. Bramblett, R.D. Howard, B.E. Homler, H.R. Johnson, R.B. Harrington, and M.D. Judge. 1971. Dietary effects on beef composition. 4. Processing and palatability attributes. J. Food Sci. 36: 147-154.
Dubost, A., D. Micol, B. Meunier, C. Lethias, and A. Listrat. 2013a. Relationships between structural characteristics of bovine intramuscular connective tissue assessed by image analysis and collagen and proteoglycan content. Meat Sci. 93:378–386.
Dubost, A., D. Micol, B. Picard, C. Lethias, D. Andueza, D. Bauchart, and A. Listrat. 2013b. Structural and biochemical characteristics of bovine intramuscular connective tissue and beef quality. Meat Sci. 95:555–561
Duckett, S.K., and J.G. Andrae. 2001. Implant strategies in an integrated beef production system. J. Anim. Sci. 79:E110–E117.
Duckett, S.K., and S.L. Pratt. 2014. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium—Anabolic implants and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci.92:3–9.
Duckett, S.K., F.N. Owens, and J.C. Andrae. 1997. Effects of implants on performance and carcass traits of feedyard stters and heifers. In F. M. Owens (Ed.), Impact of implants on performance and carcass value of beef cattle, pp. 63–82. Stillwater, USA: Oklahoma State University.
Duckett, S.K., S. L. Pratt, and J. W. Long. 2011. Effect of anabolic implant and quality grade on lipogenic gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):557 (Abstr.).
Duckett, S.K., J.P.S. Neel, J. P. Fontenot, and W.M. Clapham. 2009. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: III. Tissue proximate, fatty acid, vitamin, and cholesterol content. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2961–2970.
Duckett, S.K., D.G. Wagner, L.D. Yates, H.G. Dolezal, and S.G. May. 1993. Effects of time on feed on beef nutrient composition. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2079–2088.
Duckett, S.K., D.G. Wagner, F.N. Owens, H.G. Dolezal, and D.R. Gill. 1999. Effect of anabolic implants on beef intramuscular lipid content. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1100–1104.
Duckett, S.K., J.W. Long, M.D. Owens, S.E. Ellis, and S. L. Pratt. 2012. Adipocyte location and anabolic implant alter adipocyte transcriptome in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 90:297 Abstr.
Duckett, S.K., J.P.S. Neel, R.M. Lewis, J.P. Fontenot, and W.M. Clapham. 2013. Effects of forage species or concentrate finishing on animal performance, carcass and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1454–1467.
Duckett, S.K., J.P.S. Neel, R.N. Sonon Jr., J.P. Fontenot, W.M. Clapham, and G. Scaglia. 2007. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and fi nishing system on: II. Ninth-tenth-eleventhrib composition, muscle color and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2691–2698.
Dunn, C.S. 1990. Stress reactions of cattle undergoing ritual slaughter using two methods of restraint. Vet. Record 126:522–525.
Dunne, P.G., F.J. Monahan, F.P. O’Mara, and A.P. Moloney. 2005a. Color stability, under simulated retail display conditions, of M. longissimus dorsi and M. semimembranosus from steers given long-term daily exercise and supplemented with vitamin E. Meat Sci. 71:480–489.
Dunne, P.G., F.P. O’Mara, F.J. Monahan, and A.P. Molones. 2006. Changes in color characteristics and pigmentation of subcutaneous adipose tissue and M. longissimus dorsi of heifers fed grass, grass silage, or concentrate-based diets. Meat Sci. 74:231–241.
Dunne, P.G., F.P. O’Mara, F.J. Monahan, P. French, and A.P. Moloney. 2005b. Color of muscle from 18-month-old steers given long-term daily exercise. Meat Sci. 71:219–229.
Dunshea, F.R., D.N.D’Souza, D.W. Pethick, G.S. Harper, and R.D. Warner. 2005. Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Sci. 71:8–38.
Dunshea, F.R., C. Colantoni, K. Howard, I. McCauley, P. Jackson, K.A. Long, S. Lopaticki, E.A. Nugent, J.A. Simons, J. Walker, and D.P. Hennessy. 2001. Vaccination of boars with a GnRH vaccine (Improvac) eliminates boar taint and increases growth performance. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2524–2535.
Dutson, T.R. 1983. The relationship of pH and temperature to disruption of specific muscle proteins and activity of lysosomal proteases. J. Food Biochem. 7:223–245.
Dwivedi, A., M.N. Vasavada, and D. Cornforth. 2006. Evaluation of antioxidant effects and sensory attributes of Chinese 5-spice ingredients in cooked ground beef. J. Food Sci. 71:12-17.
Eastwood, L.C., A.N. Arnold, R.K. Miller, K.B. Gehring, and J.W. Savell. 2016. Novel approach to aging beef: Vacuum-packaged foodservice steaks versus vacuum-packaged subprimals. Meat Sci. 116: 230–235.
Edmunds, T., P.A. Nagainis, S.K. Sathe, V.F. Thompson, and D.E. Goll. 1991. Comparison of the autolyzed and unautolyzed forms of mu- and m-calpain from bovine skeletal muscle. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1077:197–208.
Eggen, A., and J.F. Hocquette. 2004. Genomic approaches to economic trait loci and tissue expression profiling: Application to muscle biochemistry and beef quality. Meat Sci. 66:1–9.
Eggen, K. H., W.E. Ekholdt, V. Host, and S.O. Kolset. 1998. Proteoglycans and meat quality — A possible role of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in post mortem degradation. Basic and Appl. Myology 8:159–168.
Eilers, J.D., J.D. Tatum, J.B. Morgan, and G.C. Smith. 1996. Modification of early-postmortem muscle pH and use of postmortem aging to improve beef tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 74:790−798.
Eissenberg, J.C., and A. Shilatifard. 2010. Histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4)methylation in development and differentiation. Developm. Biol. 339:240–249.
Elam, N.A., J.A. Vasconceles, G. Hilton, D.L. VanOverbeke, T.E. Lawrence, T.H. Montgomery, W.T. Nichols, M.N. Streeter, J.P. Hutcheson, D.A. Yates, and M.L. Galyon. 2009. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride duration of feeding on performance, and carcass characteristics of feedyard cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2133-2141.
Eldridge, G.A., and C.G. Winfield. 1988. The behaviour and bruising of cattle during transport at different space allowances. Austral. J. Experim. Agric. 28:695–698.
Elizalde, J.C., J.D. Cremin, Jr., D.B. Faulkner, and N.R. Merchen. 1998. Performance and digestion by steers grazing tall fescue and supplemented with energy and protein. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1691–1701.
Ellis, M., G.M. Webster, B.G. Merrell, and I. Brown. 1997. The influence of terminal sire breed on carcass composition and eating quality of crossbred lambs. Anim. Sci. 64:77–86.
Ellis, R.J., and S.M. van der Vies. 1991. Molecular chaperones. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 60:321–347.
ElMasry, G., D.W. Sun, and P. Allen. 2012. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for predicting color, pH and tenderness of fresh beef. J. Food Eng. 110:127–140.
Elmore, J.S., and D.S. Mottram. 2000. Formation of 2-alkyl-(2H)-thiapyrans and 2 alkylthiophenes in cooked beef and lamb. J.Food Agric. Chem. 48:2420–2424.
Elmore, J.S., D.S. Mottram, M. Enser, and J.D. Wood. 1997. Novel thiazoles and 3-thiazolines in cooked beef aroma. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45:3603–3607.
Elmore, J.S., D.S. Mottram, M. Enser, and J.D. Wood. 1999. Effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47:1619–1625.
Elmore, J.S., D.S. Mottram, M. Enser, and J.D. Wood. 2000. The effects of diet and breed on the volatile compounds of cooked lamb. Meat Sci. 55:149–159.
Elmore, J.S., M.M. Campo, M. Enser, and D.S. Mottram. 2002. Effect of lipid composition on meat like model systems containing cysteine, ribose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 50:1126-1132.
Elmore, J.S., S.L. Cooper, M. Enser, D.S. Mottram, L.A. Sinclair, and R.G. Wilkinson. 2005. Dietary manipulation of fatty acid composition in lamb meat and its effect on the volatile aroma compounds of grilled lamb. Meat Sci. 69:233–242.
Elmore, J.S., H.E. Warren, D.S. Mottram, N.D. Scollan, M. Enser, R.I. Richardson, and J.D. Wood. 2004. A comparison of the aroma volatiles and fatty acid compositions of grilled beef muscle from Aberdeen Angus and HolsteinFriesian steers fed diets based on silage or concentrates. Meat Sci. 68:27-33.
Elmore, S. 2007. Apoptosis: A review of programmed cell death. Toxicol. Pathol. 35:495–516.
El-Saleh, S.C., and R.J. Solaro. 1988. Troponin I enhances acidic pH-induced depression of Ca2+ binding to the regulatory sites in skeletal troponin Can. J. Biol. Chem. 263:3274–3278.
Elzo, M.A., D.D. Johnson, J.G. Wasdin, and J.D. Driver. 2012. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus–Brahman multibreed population. Meat Sci. 90:87–92.
Emerson, M.R., D.R. Woerner, K.E. Belk, and J.D. Tatum. 2013. Effectiveness of USDA instrument-based marbling measurements for categorizing beef carcasses according to differences in longissimus muscle sensory attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1024–1034.
Engebretson, M. 2008. North America. 2008. In: M. C. Appleby, V. A. Cussen, L. Garcés, L. A. Lambert, and J. Turner (Eds.), Long distance transport and welfare of farm animals, pp. 218–260. Wallingford, UK: CABI.
England, E.M., T.L. Scheffler, S.C. Kasten, S.K. Matarneh, and D.E. Gerrard . 2013. Exploring the unknowns involved in the transformation of muscle to meat. Meat Sci. 95:837–843.
England, E.M., K.D. Fisher, S.J. Wells, D.A. Mohrhauser, D.E. Gerrard, and A.D. Weaver. 2012. Postmortem titin proteolysis is influenced by sarcomere length in bovine muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 90:989–995.
Ertbjerg, P., P. Henckel, A. Karlsson, L.M. Larsen, and A.J. Moller. 1999. Combined effect of epinephrine and exercise on calpain/calpastatin and cathepsin B and L activity in porcine longissimus muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2428–2436.
Ertbjerg, P. and E. Puolanne. 2017. Review Muscle structure, sarcomerelength andinﬂuences on meatquality. Meat Sci. 132:139-172.
Escobedo, J., S.A.M. Pucci, and T.J. Koh. 2004. HSP25 protects skeletal muscle cells against oxidative stress. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 37:1455–1462.
Esmailizadeh, A.K., C.A. Morris, N.G. Cullen, Z.A. Kruk, D.S. Lines, S.M.Hickey, and W.S. Pitchford. 2011. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for meat quality and muscle metabolic traits in cattle. Anim. Genetics 42:592–599.
Etherington, D.J. 1984. The contribution of proteolytic enzymes to postmortem changes in muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 59:1644–1650.
Etherington, D.J. 1987. Collagen and meat quality: Effects of conditioning and growth rate. In A. M. Pearson, T. R. Dutson, and A. J. Bailey (Eds.), Advances in meat research, pp. 351–360. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Eyre, D. 1987. Collagen cross-linking amino acids. Meth. Enzymol. 144:115–139.
Fajas, L., M.B. Debril, and J. Auwerx. 2001. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma: From adipogenesis to carcinogenesis. J. Molec. Endo. 27:1–9.
Falomir-Lockhart, A.H., A. Rogberg-Muñoz, J. Papaleo-Mazzucco, D.E. Goszczynski, J.P. Lirón, M.E. Fernández, M.C. Añon, L.M. Melucci, and G. Giovambattist. 2015. Study of the influence of genes related to muscle oxidative processes on beef color. Meat Sci. 108:17–20
Fan, G.C., G. Chu, and E.G. Kranias. 2005. Hsp20 and its cardioprotection. Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 15:138–141.
Fang, S.H., T. Nishimura, and K. Takahashi. 1999. Relationship between development of intramuscular connective tissue and toughness of pork during growth of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:120–130.
Farmer, J.J., and D.S. Mottram. 1990. Recent study on the formation of meat-like aroma compounds. In Y. Bessere, and A. F. Thomas (Eds.), Flavor science and technology, pp. 113–116. Chichester: Wiley, UK.
Farmer, L.J. 1992. In D.E. Johnston, M.K. Knight,and D.A. Ledward (Eds.), Meat flavor in the chemistry of muscle-based foods, pp. 169–182. London: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Farmer, L.J., and R.L.S. Patterson. 1991. Compounds contributing to meat flavour. Food Chem. 40: 201-205.
Farmer, L.J., T.D.J. Hagan, and O. Paraskevas. 1999. Role of selected precursors in meat flavour formation. In Y. L. Xiong, C. -T. Ho, and F. Shahidi (Eds.), Quality attributes of muscle foods, pp. 159–172, New York: Plenum Publ. Corp.
Farmer, L.J., J.T. Kennedy, and T.D.J. Hagan. 2009c. Contribution of aqueous precursors to the odour and flavour of cooked meats. 55th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech., pp. PS7 06. Copenhagen, Denmark.
Farmer, L.J., D.J. Devlin, N.F.S. Gault, A.W. Gordon, B.W. Moss, E.L.C. Tolland, and I.J. Tollerton. 2010. Comparison of systems for assuring the eating quality of beef. Adv. Anim. Sci. Belfast: Proc. Brit. Soc. Anim. Sci. 231.
Farmer, L.J., D.J. Devlin, N.F.S. Gault, A. Gee, A.W. Gordon, B.W. Moss, R. Polkinghorne, J. Thompson, E.L.C. Tolland, and I.J. Tollerton. 2009a. Effect of type and extent of cooking on the eating quality of Northern Ireland beef. Proc. 55th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech., pp. PE7 33, Copenhagen, August 2009.
Farmer, L.J., D.J. Devlin, N.F.S. Gault, A. Gee, A.W. Gordon, B.W., Moss, R. Polkinghorne, J. Thompson, E.L.C. Tolland, and I.J. Tollerton. 2009b. Prediction of eating quality using the Meat Standards Australia system for Northern Ireland. Proc. 55th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci Tech., pp. PE7 34, Copenhagen, August 2009.
Farouk, M., E. Wiklund, A. Stuart, and P. Dobbie. 2009a. Aging prior to freezing improves the color of frozen–thawed beef and venison. Paper presented at the Proc. 55th Intl. Congr. of Meat Sci. Techn., Copenhagen, Denmark.
Farouk, M., E. Wiklund, A. Stuart, and P. Dobbie. 2009b. Aging prior to freezing improves waterholding capacity in beef and venison. Paper presented at the Proc. 55th Intl. Congr. of Meat Sci. and Techn., Copenhagen, Denmark.
Farouk, M.M. 2013. Review. Advances in the industrial production of Halal and Kosher red meat. Meat Sci. 95, 805–820.
Faucitano, L., P.Y. Chouinard, J. Fortin, I.B. Mandell, C. Lafreniere, C.L. Girard, and R. Berthiaume. 2008. Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants: 2. Meat quality, fatty acid composition, and overall palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1678–1689.
Faul C, A. Dhume, A.D. Schecter, and P. Mundel. 2007. Protein kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, and calcineurin regulate the intracellular trafficking of myopodin between the Z-disc and the nucleus of cardiac myocytes. Mol. Cell 27:8215-8227.
Faulkner, D.B., D.F. Hummel, D.D. Buskirk, L.L. Berger, D.F. Parrett, and G.F. Cmarik. 1994. Performance and nutrient metabolism by nursing calves supplemented with limited or unlimited corn or soyhulls. J. Anim. Sci. 72:470–477.
Faustman, C. and R.G. Cassens. 1990. The biochemical basis of discoloration in fresh meat: A review. J. Muscle Foods 1:217–243.
Faustman, C., W.K. Chan, D.M. Schaefer, and A. Havens. 1998. Beef color update: The role for vitamin E. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1019–1026.
Faustman, C., Q. Sun, R.A. Mancini, and S.P. Suman. 2010. Myoglobin and lipid oxidation interactions: Mechanistic bases and control. Meat Sci. 86:86–94.
Faustman, C., R.G. Cassens, D.M. Schaefer, D.R. Buege, and K.K. Scheller. 1989a. Vitamin E supplementation of Holstein steer diets improves sirloin steak color. J. Food Sci. 54:485–486.
Fautsman, C, R.G. Cassens, D.M. Schaefer, S.N. Williams, and K.K. Scheller. 1989b. Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in Holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E. J. Food Sci. 54:858–862.
Feasson, L., D. Stockholm, D. Freyssenet, I. Richard, S. Duguez, J.S. Beckmann, and C. Denis. 2002. Molecular adaptations of neuromuscular disease-associated proteins in response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. 543:297–306.
Feeney, R.E., G. Blankenhorn, and H.B. Dixon. 1975. Carbonyl-amine reactions in protein chemistry. Adv. Prot. Chem. 29:135–203.
Felderhoff, C.A., C.P. Lyford, J. Malaga, D.D. Harris, J.C. Brooks, J.M. Mehaffey, R. Polkinghorne, and M.F. Miller. 2007. National consumer survey reveals beef flavor is the most important trait affecting satisfaction. 60th Ann. Recipr. Meat Conf.
Fell, L.R., I.G. Colditz, K.H. Walker, and D.L. Watson. 1999. Associations between temperament, performance and immune function in cattle entering a commercial feedyard. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 39:795–802.
Ferguson, D.M., and R.D. Warner. 2008. Have we underestimated the impact of preslaughter stress on meat quality in ruminants? Meat Sci. 80:12–19.
Ferguson, D.M., J. Thompson, and R. Polkinghorne. 1999. Meat standards Australia, a “PACCP” based beef grading scheme for consumers. 3) PACCP requirements which apply to carcass processing. Book of abstracts of the 45th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. and Tech., Yokohama, Japan, 18–19.
Ferguson, D.M., H.L. Bruce, J.M. Thompson, A.F. Egan, D. Perry, and W.R. Shorthose. 2001. Factors affecting beef palatability—farmgate to chilled carcass. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 41:879–891.
Ferguson, D.M., ST. Jiang, H. Hearnshaw, S.R. Rymill, and J.M. Thompson. 2000. Effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity and tenderness of M. longissimus from cattle with different proportions of Bos indicus content. Meat Sci. 55: 265–272.
Fernandez, X., and E. Tornberg. 1994. The influence of high post-mortem temperature and differing ultimate pH on the course of rigor and aging in pig Longissimus dorsi muscle. Meat Sci. 36:345–363.
Fernando, P., J.F. Kelly, K. Balazsi, R.S. Slack, L.A. Megeney. 2002. Caspase 3 activity is required for skeletal muscle differentiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 99:11025-11030.
Fernyhough, M.E., E. Okine, G. Hausman, J.L. Vierck, and M.V. Dodson. 2007. PPARγ and GLUT-4 expression as developmental regulators/markers for preadipocyte differentiation into an adipocyte. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 33:367–378.
Fernyhough, M.E., D.L. Helterline, J.L. Vierck, G.J. Hausman, R.A. Hill, and M.V. Dodson. 2005. Differentiation of mature adipocytes to form adipofibroblasts: More than just a possibility. Adipocytes 1:17–24.
Feve, B. 2005. Adipogenesis: Cellular and molecular aspects. Best Practice and Res. Clin. Endo. Metab. 19:483−499.
Ficz, G., M.R. Branco,S. Seisenberger, F. Santos, F. Krueger, T.A. Hore, et.al. 2011. Dynamic regulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse ES cells and during differentiation. Nat. 473:398–402.
Field, R., R. McCormick, V. Balasubramanian, D. Sanson, J. Wise, D. Hixon, M. Riley, and W. Russell. 1997. Tenderness variation among loin steaks from A and C maturity carcasses of heifers similar in chronological age. J. Anim. Sci. 75:693–699.
Field, R.A. 1971. Effect of castration on meat quality and quantity. J. Anim. Sci. 32:849–858.
Field, R.A., G.E. Nelms, and C.O. Schoonover. 1966. Effects of age, marbling, and sex on palatability of beef. J. Anim. Sci. 25: 360-366.
Fink, S., S. Mömke, A. Wöhlke, and O. Distl. 2008. Genes on bovine chromosome 18 associated with bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos in German Brown cattle. Molec. Vision 14:1737–1751.
Fischer, U., R. Jänicke, and K. Schulze-Osthoff. 2003. Many cuts to ruin: A comprehensive update of caspase substrates. Cell Death Differ. 10:76–100.
Fishell, V.K., E.D. Aberle,M.D., Judge, and T.W. Perry. 1985. Palatability and muscle properties of beef as influenced by preslaughter growth rate. J. Anim. Sci. 61:151–157.
Fisher, A.V., M. Enser, R.I. Richardson, J.D. Wood, G.R. Nute, E. Kurt, L.A. Sinclair, and R.G. Wilkinson. 2000. Fatty acid composition and eating quality of lamb types derived from four diverse breed x production systems. Meat Sci. 55:141–147.
Font-i-Furnols, M., and Luis Guerrero. 2014. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: An overview. Meat Sci. 98:361–371.
Fordyce, G., M.E. Goddard, and G.W. Seifert. 1982. The measurement of temperament in cattle and the effect of experience and genotype. Anim. Prod. Austr. 14:329–332.
Fordyce, G., C.J. Howitt, R.G. Holroyd, P.K. O’Rourke, and K.W. Entwistle. 1996. The performance of Brahman-Shorthorn and Sahiwal-Shorthorn beef cattle in the dry tropics of northern Queensland. 5. Scrotal circumference, temperament, ectoparasite resistance, and the genetics of growth and other traits in bulls. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 36:9–17.
Fordyce, G., M.E. Goddard, R. Tyler, G. Williams, and M.A. Toleman. 1985. Temperament and bruising of Bos indicus cross cattle. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 25:283–288.
Fordyce, G., J.R. Wythes, W.R. Shortnose, D.W. Underwood, and R.K. Shepherd. 1988a. Cattle temperaments in extensive beef herds in northern Queensland. 2. Effect of temperament on carcass and meat quality. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 28:689–693.
Fordyce, G., R. Dodt, and J. Wythes. 1988b. Cattle temperaments in extensive beef herds in northern Queensland. 1. Factors affecting temperament. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 28:683−687.
Formanek, Z., J.P. Kerry, D.J., Buckley, P.A. Morrissey, and J. Farkas. 1998. Effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation and packaging on the quality of minced beef. Meat Sci. 50: 203–210.
Forrest, R.J. 1975. Effects of castration, sire and hormone treatments on the quality of rib roasts from Holstein-Friesian males. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 55: 287.
Fortin, A., D.M. Viera, D.A. Froelich, G. Butler, and J.G. Proulx. 1985. Carcass characteristics and sensory properties of Hereford X Shorthorn bulls and steers fed different levels of grass silage and high moisture barley. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1403-1411.
Foutz, C.P., H.G. Dolezal, T.L. Gardner, D.R. Gill, J.L. Hensley, and J.B. Morgan. 1997. Anabolic implant effects on steer performance, carcass traits, subprimal yields, and longissimus muscle properties. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1256–1265.
Francis, J.J., J.R. Romans, and H.W. Norton. 1977. Consumer rating of two beef marbling levels. J. Anim. Sci., 45: 67-70.
Franco, D., S. Crecente, J.A. Vázquez, M. Gómez, and J.M. Lorenzo. 2013. Effect of cross breeding and amount of finishing diet on growth parameters, carcass and meat composition of foals slaughtered at 15 months. Meat Sci. 93: 547–556.
Franco, D., E. Rodríguez, L. Purriños, R. Bermúdez, S. Crecente, and J.M. Lorenzo. 2011. Meat quality of “Galician mountain” foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughtered age and livestock production system. Meat Sci. 88: 292–298.
Franke, D. E. 1980. Breed and heterosis effects of American zebu cattle. J. Anim. Sci.50:1206–1214.
Franke, W.C., and M. Solberg. 1971. Quantitative determination of metmyoglobine and total pigments in an intact meat sample using reflectance spectrophotometry. J. Food Sci. 36: 515-519.
Franz, C., K.H.C. Baser, and W. Windisch. 2010. Essential oils and aromatic plants in animal feeding — a European perspective. A review. Flav. Frag. J. 25:327–340.
Freking, B.A., J.W. Keele, C.W., Beattie, S.M. Kappes, T.P.L. Smith, T.S. Sonstegard, M.K. Nielsen and K.A. Leymaster. 1998. Evaluation of the ovine callipyge locus: I. Relative chromosomal position and gene action. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2062–2071.
French, P., E.G. O’Riordan, F.J. Monahan, P.J. Caffrey, M.T. Mooney, D.J. Troy, and A.P. Moloney. 2001a. The eating quality of meat of steers fed grass and/or concentrates. Meat Sci. 57: 379-386.
French, P., C. Stanton, F. Lawless, E.G. O’Riordan, F.J. Monahan, P.J. Caffrey, and A.P. Moloney. 2001b. Fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, of intramuscular fat from steers offered grazed grass, grass silage, or concentrate based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 2849-2855.
French, P., E.G. O’Riordan,F.J. Monahan, P.J. Caffrey, M. Vidal, M.T. Mooney, D.J. Troy, and A.P. Moloney. 2000. Meat quality of steers finished on autumn grass, grass silage or concentrate-based diets. Meat Sci. 56:173–180.
Frisch, J.E., R. Drinkwater, B. Harrison, and S. Johnson. 1997. Classification of the southern African Sanga and east African shorthorned Zebu. Anim. Genet. 28: 77–83.
Fritz, J.D., M.C. Mitchell, B.B. Marsh, and M.L. Greaser. 1993. Titin content of beef in relation to tenderness. Meat Sci. 33:41–50.
Fritz, P.J., E.S. Vesell, E.L. White, and K.M. Pruitt. 1969. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling meat tenderness. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 62:558.
Frylinck, L., and P.H. Heinze. 2003. Evaluation of meat tenderness of indigenous South African and other beef breeds. In Consistency of quality. Proceedings of the 11th international meat symposium, pp. 3–13, 29–30 January 2003, Centurion, South Africa..
Fukuda, N., H.L. Granzier, S. Ishiwata, and S. Kurihara. 2008. Physiological functions of the giant elastic protein titin in mammalian striated muscle. J. Physiol. Sci. 58:151–159.
Fumika Iida, Y., R. Tsuyuki, K. Kato, A. Egusa, H. Ogoshi, and T. Nishimura. 2016. Changes in taste compounds, breaking properties, and sensory attributes during dry aging of beef from Japanese black cattle. Meat Sci. 112:46–51.
Gama, L.T., M.C. Bressan, E.C. Rodrigues L.V. Rossato, O.C. Moreira, S.P. Alves, R.J.B. Bessa. 2013. Heterosis for meat quality and fatty acid profiles in crosses among Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain Meat Sci. 93:98–104.
Gandemer, G. 1997. Muscle lipids and meat quality. Phospholipids and flavor. Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides 4:19–25.
Gandemer, G. 2002. Lipids in muscles and adipose tissues, changes during processing and sensory properties of meat products. Meat Sci. 62:309–321.
Ganhão, R., D. Morcuende, and M. Estévez. 2010. Protein oxidation in emulsified cooked burger patties with added fruit extracts: Influence on color and texture deterioration during chill storage. Meat Sci. 85:402–409.
Garcia, M.D., R. M. Thallman, T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, and E. Casas. 2010. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits. J. Anim. Sci. 88:491–496.
Garcia, L.G., K.L. Nicholson, T.W. Hoffman, T.E. Lawrence, D.S. Hale, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savell, D.L. Van Overbeke, J.B. Morgan, K.E. Belk, T.G. Field, J.A. Scanga, J.D. Tatum, and G.C. Smith. 2008a. National Beef Quality Audit–2005: Survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 86:3533-3543.
Garcia, P.T., N.A. Pensel, A.M. Sancho, N.J. Latimori, A.M. Kloster, M.A. Amigone, and J.J. Casal. 2008b. Beef lipids in relation to animal breed and nutrition in Argentina. Meat Sci. 79:500–508.
Gardner, B.A., H.G. Dolezal, L.K. Bryant, F.N. Owens, and R.A. Smith. 1999a. Health of finishing steers: Effects on performance, carcass traits, and meat tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3168–3175.
Gardner, G.E., R.H. Jacobs, and D.W. Pethick. 2001. The effect of magnesium oxide supplementation on muscle glycogen metabolism before and after exercise and at slaughter in sheep. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 52:723–729.
Gardner, G.E., L. Kennedy, J.T.B. Milton, and D.W. Pethick. 1999b. Glycogen metabolism and ultimate pH of muscle in Merino, first-cross, and second-cross wether lambs as affected by stress before slaughter. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 50:175−181.
Garmyn, A,J, and M.F. Miller. 2014. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium — Implant and beta agonist impacts on beef palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 92:10–20.
Garmyn , A.J., G.G. Hilton , R.G. Mateescu , and D.L. Van Overbeke. 2010. Effects of Concentrate- Versus Forage-Based Finishing Diet on Carcass Traits, Beef Palatability, and Color Stability in Longissimus Muscle from Angus Heifers. Prof. Anim. Sci. 26:579–586.
Garmyn, A.J., G.G. Hilton, R.G. Mateescu, J.B. Morgan, J.M. Reecy, R.G. Tait, Jr., D.C. Beitz, and Q. Flynn. 2011c. Second go at animal disease tracability hits bumps. Available at http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/09/new-animal-disease-traceability-proposal-hits-bumps/#.UTENIFddAfM Accessed 01 March 2013.
Garmyn, A.J., G.G. Hilton, R.G. Mateescu, J.B. Morgan, J.M. Reecy, R.G. Tait, Jr., D.C. Beitz, Q. Duan, J.P. Schoonmaker, M.S. Mayes, M.E. Drewnoski, Q. Liu, and D.L. Van Overbeke. 2011a. Estimation of relationships between mineral concentration and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle and beef palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2849–2858.
Garmyn, A.J., S.M. Knobel, K.S. Spivey, L.F. Hightower, J.C. Brooks, B.J. Johnson, S.L. Parr, R.J. Rathmann, J.D. Starkey, D.A. Yates, J.M. Hodgen, J.P. Hutcheson, and M.F. Miller. 2011b. Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force measurements of 3 beef muscles in response to various aging periods after trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 89:3783–3791.
Gasser, U., and W. Grosch. 1988. Identification of volatile flavour compounds with high aroma values from cooked beef. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel Untersuchung und Forschung 186:489–494.
Gatellier, P., C. Hamelin, Y. Durand, and M. Renerre. 2001. Effect of a dietary vitamin E supplementation on color stability and lipid oxidation of air- and modified atmosphere – packaged beef. Meat Sci. 59:133–140.
Gatellier, P., Y. Mercier, H. Juin, and M. Renerre. 2005. Effect of finishing mode (pastureor mixed-diet) on lipid composition, color stability and lipid oxidation inmeat from Charolais cattle. Meat Sci. 69:175–186.
Gaughan, J.B., S.L. Bonner, I. Loxton, and T.L. Mader. 2013. Effects of chronic heat stress on plasma concentration of secreted heat shock protein 70 in growing feedyard cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 91:120–129.
Geary, T.W., K.J. Wells, D.M. Deavila, J. Deavila, V.A. Conforti, D.J. McLean, A.J. Roberts, R.W. Waterman, and J.J. Reeves. 2011. Effects of immunization against luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and treatment with trenbolone acetate on reproductive function of beef bulls and steers. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2086–2095.
Geesink, G.H., A. Ouali, C. Tassy, and F.J.M. Smulders. 1992. Tenderization, calpain/calpastatin activities and osmolality of 6 different beef muscles. Int. Congr. Meat Sci. Technol. Proc. 38:363–366.
Geesink , G.H., M.H.D. Mareko, J.D. Morton, and R. Bickerstaffe. 2001a. Electrical stimulation – when more is less. Meat Sci. 57:145-151.
Geesink, G.H., S. Kuchay, A.H. Chishti, and M. Koohmaraie. 2006. µ-calpain is essential for postmortem proteolysis of muscle proteins. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2834–2840.
George, M.H., J.D. Tatum, K.E. Belk, and G.C. Smith. 1999. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in eight U.S. cities. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1735-1741.
George-Evins, C. D. 1999. The effects of quality grade, postmortem aging, blade tenderization, and endpoint cooking temperature on Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking characteristics, and sensory panel evaluation of longissimus, gluteus medius, and Semimembranosus muscles. MS Thesis, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.
Georgopoulos, C., and W.J. Welch. 1993. Role of the major heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones. Ann. Rev. Cell Biol. 9:601–634.
Gerken, C.L., J.D. Tatum, J.B. Morgan, and G.C. Smith. 1995. Use of genetically identical (clone) steers to determine the effects of estrogenic and androgenic implants on beef quality and palatability characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3317–3324.
Gerrard, D.E., X. Gao, and J. Tan. 1996. Beef marbling and color score determination by image processing. J. Food Sci. 61:145.
Gibson, D.M., J.J. Kennelly, and G.W. Mathison. 1988. The performance of dairy and feedyard cattle fed sulfur dioxide-treated high-moisture barley. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 68:471–482.
Giddings, G.G. 1977a. Symposium: the basis of quality in muscle foods. The basis of color in muscle foods. J. Food Sci. 42: 288-297.
Giddings, G.G. 1977b. The basis of color in muscle foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 9:81–114.
Gill, C., R. Mestril, and A. Samali. 2002. Losing heart: The role of apoptosis in heart disease — A novel therapeutic target? J. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exper. Biol. 16:135–146.
Gill, C.O. 2009. Effects on the microbiological condition of product of decontaminating treatments routinely applied to carcasses at beef packing plants. J. Food Protection 72:1790−1801.
Gilmore, L.A., R.L. Walzem, S.F. Crouse, D.R. Smith, T.H. Adams, V. Vaidyanathan, X. Cao, and S.B. Smith. 2011. Consumption of high-oleic acid ground beef increases HDL-cholesterol concentration but both high- and low-oleic acid ground beef decrease HDL particle diameter in normocholesterolemic men. J. Nutr. 141:1188–1194.
Girard, I., J.L. Aalhus, J.A. Basarab, I.L. Larsen, and H.L. Bruce. 2011. Modification of muscle inherent properties through age at slaughter, growth promotants and breed crosses. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 91:635–648.
Girard, I., J.L. Aalhus, J.A. Basarab, I.L. Larsen, and H.L. Bruce. 2012a. Modification of beef quality through steer age at slaughter, breed cross and growth promotants. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 92:175–188.
Girard, I., H.L. Bruce, J.A. Basarab, I.L. Larsen, and J.L. Aalhus. 2012b. Contribution of myofibrillar and connective tissue components to the Warner-Bratzler shear force of cooked beef. Meat Sci. 92:775–782.
Gissel, H., and T. Clausen. 2001. Excitation-induced Ca2+ influx and skeletal muscle cell damage. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 171:327–334.
Gnanalingham, M. G., A. Mostyn, M.E. Symonds, and T.Stephenson. 2005. Ontogeny and nutritional programming of adiposity in sheep: Potential role of glucocorticoid action and uncoupling protein. Amer. J. Physiol. Reg., Integ. and Compar. Physiol. 289:R1407−R1415.
Golenhofen, N., M.D. Perng, R.A. Quinlan, and D. Drenckhahn. 2004. Comparison of the small heat shock proteins alphaB-crystallin, MKBP, HSP25, HSP20, and cvHSP in heart and skeletal muscle. Histochem. and Cell Biol. 122:415–425.
Goll, D. E., W.C. Kleese, and A. Szpacenko. 1989. Skeletal muscle proteases and protein turnover. In D. R. Campion, G. J. Hausman, and R. J. Martin (Eds.), Animal growth regulation (pp. 141–182). New York: Plenum Publishing.
Goll, D.E., R.J. Taylor, J.A. Christiansen, and V.F. Thompson. 1991. Role of proteinases and protein turnover in muscle growth and meat quality. Proc. 44th Ann. Recip. Meat Conf. 44:25–36.
Goll, D.E., V.F. Thompson, R.G. Taylor, and J.A. Christiansen. 1992a. Role of the calpain system in muscle growth. Biochimie 74:225–237.
Goll, D.E., V.F. Thompson, R.G. Taylor, and T. Zalewska. 1992b. Is calpain activity regulated by membranes and autolysis or by calcium and calpastatin? Bioessays 14:549–556.
Goll, D.E., G. Neti, S.W. Mares, and V.F. Thompson. 2008. Myofibrillar protein turnover: The proteasome and the calpains. J. Anim. Sci. 86:E19–E35.
Goll, D.E., V.F. Thompson, H. Li, W.Wei, and J. Cong. 2003. The calpain system. Physiol. Rev. 83: 731–801.
Gomes, C. L., S. B. Pflanzer, A. G. Cruz, P. E. de Felício, and H. M. A. Bolini. 2014. Sensory descriptive profiling and consumer preferences of beef strip loin steaks. Food Res. Int. 59:76–84.
Gonzalez, J.M., S.E. Johnson, T.A. Thrift, J.D. Savell, S.E. Ouellette, and D.D. Johnson. 2009. Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride on the fiber type distribution and shelf-life of six muscles of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1764-1771.
Gonzalez, J.M., L.E. Camacho, S.M. Ebarb, K.C. Swanson, K.A. Vonnahme, et al. 2013. Realimentation of nutrient restricted pregnant beef cows supports compensatory fetal muscle growth. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4797-4806.
González-Calvo, L., G. Ripoll, F. Molino, J.H. Calvo, and M. Joy. 2015. The relationship between muscle α-tocopherol concentration and meat oxidation in light lambs fed vitamin E supplements prior to slaughter. J. Sci. of Food and Agr. 95:103–110.
Goodson, K. J., W.W. Morgan,J.O. Reagan, B.L. Gwartney, S.M. Courington, J.W. Wise, and J.W. Savell. 2002. Beef customer satisfaction: Factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 80:401–408.
Gorocica-Buenfil, M.A., F.L. Fluharty, and S.C. Loerch. 2008. Effect of vitamin A restriction on carcass characteristics and immune status of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1609–1616.
Gorocica-Buenfil, M.A., F.L. Fluharty, C.K. Reynolds, and S.C. Loerch. 2007a. Effect of dietary vitamin A restriction on marbling and conjugated linoleic acid content in Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2243–2255.
Gorraiz, C., M.J. Beriain, J. Chasco, and K. Insausti. 2006. Effect of aging time on volatile
compounds, odor, and flavor of cooked beef from Pirenaica and Friesian bulls and
heifers. J. Food Sci. 67:916–922.
Gotoh, T.,E. Albrecht, F. Teuscher, K. Kawabata. K. Sakashita, H. Iwamoto et al. 2009. Differences in muscle and fat accretion in Japanese Black and European cattle. Meat Sci. 82:300−308.
Grandin, T. 1980. The effect of stress on livestock and meat quality prior to and during slaughter. Intl. J. Study Anim. Problems 1:313–337.
Grandin, T. 1993a. Handling and welfare of livestock in slaughter plants. In T. Grandin (Ed.), Livestock handling and transport, pp. 295. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Grandin, T. 1993b. Teaching principles of behavior and equipment design for handling livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1065–1070.
Grandin, T. 1997. Assessment of stress during handling and transport. J. Anim. Sci. 75:249–257.
Grandin, T. 2000a. Effect of animal welfare audits of slaughter plants by amajor fast food company on cattle handling and stunning practices. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assn. 216:848–851.
Gray, J.I., E.A. Gomoa, and D.J. Buckley. 1996. Oxidative quality and shelf life of meats. Meat Sci. 43:S111–S123.
Grayson, A.L., D.A. King, S.D. Shackelford, M. Koohmaraie, and T.L. Wheeler. 2014. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 92:2735–2740.
Grayson, L., S.D. Shackelford, D.A. King, R.O. McKeith, R.K. Miller, and T.L. Wheeler. 2016. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2583–2591.
Green, D.A., D.R. Brink, M.L. Bauer, and T.J. Wester. 1992. Estradiol-17β effects on lipid metabolism of adipose tissue in nutritionally induced lean and obese ovariectomized ewes. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2120–2129.
Greenquist, M.A., T.J. Klopfenstein, W.H. Schacht, G.E. Erickson, K.J. Vander Pol, M.K. Luebbe, K.R. Brink, A.K. Schwarz, and L.B. Baleseng. 2009. Effects of nitrogen fertilization and dried distillers grains supplementation: Forage use and performance of yearling steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3639–3646.
Greenwood, L.P., L.M. Cafe, B.L. McIntyre, G.H. Geesink, J. M. Thompson, R. Polkinghorne, D.W. Pethick, and D.L. Robinson. 2013. Molecular value predictions: Associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5912–5925.
Greenwood, P.L., R.M. Slepetis, J.W. Hermanson, and A.W. Bell. 1999. Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with reduced cell cycle activity, but not myofiber number, in ovine fetal muscle. Reprod. Fert. Devel. 11:281−291.
Greenwood, P.L., L.M. Cafe, H. Hearnshaw, D.W. Hennessy, and S.G. Morris. 2009. Consequences of prenatal and preweaning growth for yield of beef primal cuts from 30-month-old Piedmontese- and Wagyu-sired cattle. Anim. Prod. Sci. 49:468–478.
Gregory, K.E., S.C. Seideman, and J.J. Ford. 1983. Effects of late castration, zeranol, and breed group on composition and palatability characteristics of zeranol muscle of bovine males. J. Anim. Sci. 56:781.
Gregory, K.E., L.V. Cundiff, R.M. Koch, M.E. Dikeman, and M. Koohmaraie. 1996. Breed effects and retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits in advanced generations of composite populations of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 74:833–850.
Gregory, K. E., L.V. Cundiff, R.M. Koch, M.E. Dikeman and M. Koohmaraie. 1994. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1174–1183.
Gregory, N.G. 2005. Recent concerns about stunning and slaughter. Meat Sci. 70:481–491.
Gregory, N.G. 2007. Animal welfare and meat production (2nd ed.). Wallingford, UK:CABI Publishing pp. 213–226.
Griffin, W.A., T.J. Klopfenstein, G.E. Erickson, D.M. Feuz, J.C. MacDonald, and D.J. Jordon. 2010. Comparison of performance and economics of a long-yearling and calf-fed system.
Grobbel, J.P., M.E. Dikeman, M.C. Hunt, and G.A. Milliken. 2008b. Effects of different packaging atmospheres and injection-enhancement on beef tenderness, sensory attributes, desmin degradation, and display color. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2697–2710.
Grobet, L., D. Poncelet, L.J. Royo, B. Brouwers, D. Pirottin, C. Michaux, F. Menissier, M. Zanotti, S. Dunner, and M. Georges. 1998. Molecular definition of an allelic series of mutations disrupting the myostatin function and causing double-muscling in cattle. Mamm. Genome 9:210–213.
Grobet, L., L.J. R. Martin, D. Poncelet, D. Pirottin, B. Brouwers, J. Riquet, A. Schoeberlein, S. Dunner, F. Menissier, J. Massabanda, R. Fries, R. Hanset, and M. Georges. 1997. A deletion in the bovine myostatin gene causes the double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Nat. Genet. 17:71–74.
Grosch, W. 2001. Evaluation of the key odorants of foods by dilution experiments, aroma models and omission. Chem. Senses 26:533–545.
Gruber, S.L., J.D. Tatum, J.A. Scanga, P.L. Chapman, G.C. Smith, and K.E. Belk. 2006. Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner–Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beefmuscles. J. Anim. Sci. 84:3387–3396.
Gruber, S.L., J.D. Tatum, T.E. Engle, P.L. Chapman, K.E. Belk, and G.C. Smith. 2010. Relationships of behavioral and physiological symptoms of preslaughter stress to beef longissimus muscle tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1148–1159.
Gruber, S.L., J.D. Tatum, T.E. Engle, P.L. Chapman, R.M. Enns, K.E. Belk, and G.C. Smith. 2011. Effects of genetic markers and implant strategy on longissimus and gluteus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 2011. 89:1401–1411.
Grujić, R., L. Petrović, B. Pikula, and L. Amidžić. 1993. Definition of the optimum freezing rate—1. Investigation of structure and ultrastructure of beef M. longissimus dorsi frozen at different freezing rates. Meat Sci. 33:301–318.
Grunert, K.G. 1997. What’s in a steak? A cross-cultural study on the quality perception of beef. Food Qual. Prefer. 8:157–174.
Guelker, M.R., A.N. Haneklaus, J.C. Brooks, C.C. Carr, R.J. Delmore, D.B. Griffin, et al. 2013. National Beef Tenderness Survey — 2010: Warner–Bratzler shear-force values and sensory-panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and foodservice establishments. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 1005–1014.
Guillemin, N., C. Jurie, D. Micol, G. Renand, J.F. Hocquette, and B. Picard. 2011a. Prediction equations of beef tenderness: implication of oxidative stress and apoptosis. Proc. 57th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci Tech. 1-6. Ghent-Belgium.
Guinard, J.X. 2002. Internal and external preference mapping: Understanding market segmentation and identifying drivers of liking. In P. Given, and D. Paredes (Eds.), Chemistry of taste: Mechanisms, behaviors, and mimics, Vol. 825, pp. 227–242.
Gulati, J., and A. Babu. 1989. Effect of acidosis on Ca2+ sensitivity of skinned cardiac muscle with troponin C exchange. FEBS Lett. 245:279–282.
Gunderson, J.A., M.C. Hunt, T.A. Houser, E.A.E. Boyle, M.E. Dikeman, D.E. Johnson, D.L. VanOverbeke, G.G. Hilton, C. Brooks, J. Killefer, D.M. Allen, M.N. Streeter, W.T. Nichols, J.P. Hutcheson, and D.A. Yates. 2009b. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to calf-fed Holsteins has minimal effects on semimembranosus steak color. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3751–3763.
Gunn, M., P. Allen, M. Bonneau, D.V. Byrne, S. Cinotti, B. Fredriksen. et al. 2004. Aspects of the castration of piglets. Scientific report on the scientific panel for animal health and welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets, Question No EFSA-Q-2003-091, EFSA J. 91.
Gunter, S.A., and J.M. Phillips. 2001. Season-long vs. intensiveearly stocking with growing cattle grazing bermudagrass pasture. Prof. Anim. Sci. 17:27–32.
Gupta, R.K., Z. Arany, P. Seale, R.J. Mepani, L. Ye, H.M. Conroe, et. al. 2010. Transcriptional control of preadipocyte determination by Zfp423. Nat. 464:619–623.
Gupta, R.K., R.J. Mepani, S. Kleiner, J.C. Lo, M.J. Khandekar, P. Cohen, et. al. 2012. Zfp423 expression identifies committed preadipocytes and localizes to adipose endothelial and perivascular cells. Cell Metab. 15:230–239.
Gursanky, B., R. Kuypers, and D.M. Ferguson. 2002. Investigations of the causal factors associated with the variation in Bos indicus beef tenderness. Meat Sci.
Ha, J.K., and R.C. Lindsay. 1991. Volatile alkylphenols and thiophenol in species-related characterizing flavors of red meats. J. Food Sci. 56:1197–1202.
Hale, D.S., K. Goodson, and J.W. Savell. 2010. Beef Quality and Yield Grades. Department of Animal Science, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, College Station, TX 77843-2471. Updated February 10, 2010. www.meat.tamu.edu/beefgrading
Hammond, J. 1943. Physiological factors affecting birth weight. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2:8–12.
Han, J., J.D. Morton, A.E.D. Bekhit, and J.R. Sedcole. 2009. Pre-rigor infusion with kiwi fruit juice improves lamb tenderness. Meat Sci. 82:324–330.
Haneklaus, A.N., J.M. Hodgen, R.J. Delmore, T.E. Lawrence, D.A. Yates, D.M. Allen, D.B. Griffin, and J.W. Savell. 2011. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on retail yield of subprimals from beef and calf-fed Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2867-2877.
Hankins, O.G., and R.L. Hiner. 1938. Tenderness of beef as affected by different freezing temperatures. J. Anim. Sci. 8:260–261.
Hansen, S., M. Therkildsen, and D.V. Byrne. 2006. Effects of a compensatory growth strategy on sensory and physical properties of meat from young bulls. Meat Sci. 74:628–643.
Hansen, S., L. Frylinck, and P.E. Strydom. 2012. The effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on texture and oxidative stability of beef loins from steers treated with zilpaterol hydrochloride. Meat Sci. 90:145–151.
Harper, G.S., P.G. Allingham, and R.P. Le Feuvre.1999. Changes in connective tissue of M. semitendinosus as a response to different growth paths in steers. Meat Sci. 53:107-114.
Harper, G. S. 1999. Trends in skeletal muscle biology and the understanding of toughness in beef. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 50:1105−1129.
Harper, G. S., and D. W. Pethick. 2004. How might marbling begin? Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44:653–662.
Harris, J.J., R.K. Miller, J.W. Savell, H.R. Cross, and L.J. Ringer. 1992. Evaluation of the tenderness of beef top sirloin steaks. J. Food Sci. 57:6–9.
Harris, P.V., and W.R. Shorthose. 1988. Meat texture. In: R. Lawrie (Ed.), Developments in meat science, pp. 245-296. London: Elsevier Applied Science.
Harrison, A.R., D.H. Kropf, D.M. Allen, M.C., Hunt, and C.L. Kastner. 1980. Relationships of spectrophotometric re-ectance measurements to beef muscle visual color. J. Food Sci. 45:1052-1053.
Hausman, G.J., U. Basu, M. Du, M. Fernyhough-Culver, and M.J. Dodson. 2014. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues. Adipocytes 3:242–255.
Hausman, G.J., M.V. Dodson, K. Ajuwon, M. Azain, K.M. Barnes, L.L. Guan, Z. Jiang, S.P. Poulos, R.D. Sainz, S. Smith, M. Spurlock, J. Novakofski, M.E. Fernyhough, and W.G. Bergen. 2009. Board Invited Review: The biology and regulation of preadipocytes and adipocytes in meat animals. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1218-1246.
Hawkins, E.W., C.W. Wiltbank, F.T. MsCollum III, D.K. Lunt, R,K, Miller, K.S. Barlin, R.L. Hale, and S.B. Smith. 2004. Aggressive implant strategies do not negatively impact beef tenderness. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 3:13-18.
Hawrysh, Z.J., S.R. Gifford, and M.A. Price. 1985. Cooking and eating quality characteristics of dark cutting beef from young bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 60:682–690.
Hayes, N.S., C. Schwartz, K.J. Phelps, P. Borowicz, K.R. Maddock-Carlin, R.J. Maddock. 2015. The relationship between pre-harvest stress and the carcass characteristics of beef heifers that qualified for kosher designation. Meat Sci. 100:134–138.
Hearnshaw, H., and C. A. Morris. 1984. Genetic and environmental effects on a temperament score in beef cattle. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 35:723–733.
Hearnshaw, H., B.G. Gursansky, B. Gogel, J.M. Thompson, L.R. Fell, P.D. Stephenson, et al. 1998a. Meat quality in cattle of varying Brahman content: The effect of post-slaughter processing, growth rate and animal behaviour on tenderness. In Proceedings 44th international congress of meat science and technology, pp. 1048-1049, Barcelona, Spain.
Hedrick, H.B., W.B. Stringer, R.J. Epley, M.A. Alexander, and G.F. Krause. 1968. Comparison of factors affecting Wasrner-Bratzler shear force values of beef steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 27:628-631.
Henchion, M., M. McCarthy, and V.C. Resconi. 2017. Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives. Meat Sci. 128:1–7.
Henchion, M., M. McCarthy, V. Resconi, and D. Troy. 2014. Meat consumption: Trends quality matters. Meat Sci. 98:561–568.
Hendrick, J.P., and F.U. Hartl. 1993. Molecular chaperone functions of heat-shock proteins. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 62:349–384.
Hercberg, S., P. Preziosi, S. Briançon, P. Galan, I. Triol, D. Malvy, et. al. 1998. A primary prevention trial using nutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in cardiovascular diseases and cancers in a general population: The SU.VI.MAX study—Design, methods, and participant characteristics. Contr. Clin. Trials 19:336–351.
Hergenreder, J.E., J.J. Hosch, K.A. Varnold, A.L. Haack, L.S. Senaratne, S. Pokharel, et al. 2013. The effects of freezing and thawing rates on tenderness, sensory quality and retail display of beef subprimals. J. Anim. Sci. 91:483–490.
Herrera-Mendez, C. H., S. Becila, A. Boudjellal, and A. Ouali 2006. Meat aging: Reconsideration of the current concept. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 17:394–405.
Herring, H. K., R.G. Cassens, and E.J. Briskey. 1965. Sarcomere length of free and restrained bovine muscles at low temperatures as related to tenderness. J, Sci. Food and Agric. 16: 379–384.
Herschler, R. C., A.W. Olmsted, A.J. Edwards, R.L. Hale, T. Montgomery, R.L. Preston, S.J. Bartle, and J.J. Sheldon. 1995. Production responses to various doses and ratios of estradiol benzoate and trenbolone acetate implants in steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2873–2881.
Hersom, M.J., C.R. Krehbiel, and G.W. Horn. 2004a. Effect of live weight gain of steers during winter grazing: II. Visceral organ mass, cellularity, and oxygen consumption. J. Anim. Sci. 82:184–197.
Hersom, M.J., G.W. Horn, C.R. Krehbiel, and W.A. Phillips. 2004b. Effect of live weight gain of steers during winter grazing: I. Feedyard performance, carcass characteristics, and body composition of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 82:262–272.
Hida, Y., T. Kawada, S. Kayahashi, T. Ishihara, and T. Fushiki. 1998. Counteraction of retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on up-regulation of adipocyte differentiation with PPAR gamma ligand, an antidiabetic thiazolidinedione, in 3T3-L1 cells. Life Sci. 62:PL205–PL211.
Highfill, C.M., O. Esquivel-Font, M.E. Dikeman, D.H. Kropf. 2012. Tenderness profiles of ten muscles from F1 Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus cattle cooked as steaks and roasts. Meat Sci. 90: 881–886
Hildrum, K.I., M. Solvang, B.N. Nilson, T. Froystein, and J. Berg. 1999. Combined effects of chilling rate, low voltage electrical stimulation and freezing on sensory properties of bovine M. longissimus dorsi. Meat Sci. 52:1-7.
Hildrum, K.I., R. Rodbotten, M. Hoy, J. Berg, B. Narum, and J.P. Wold. 2009. Classification of different bovine muscles according to sensory characteristics and Warner Bratzler shear force. Meat Sci. 83:302–307.
Hill, F. 1966. The solubility of intramuscular collagen in meat animals of various ages. J. Food Sci. 31:161–166.
Hilton, G.G., J.L. Montgomery, C.R. Krehbiel, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, M.N. Streeter, J.R. Blanton, Jr., and M.F. Miller. 2009. Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with and without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat palatability of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 2009. 87:1394–1406.
Hiner, R.L., L.L. Madsen, and O.G. Hankins. 1945. Histological characteristics, tenderness, and drip losses of beef in relation to temperature of freezing. J. Food Sci. 10:312–324.
Hirooka, H. 2014. Marbled Japanese Black cattle. J. Anim. Breeding and Genetics 131:1–2.
Irie, M., A. Oka, and F. Iwaki 2003. Fiber-optic method for estimation of bovine fat quality. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 83:483–486.
Hocquette, J.F., I. Legrand, C. Jurie, D.W. Pethick, and D. Micol. 2011a. Perception in France of the Australian system for the prediction of beef quality (MSA) with perspectives for the European beef sector. Anim. Prod. Sci. 51:30–36.
Hocquette, J.F., F. Gondret, E. Baeza, F. Medale, C. Jurie, and D.W. Pethick. 2010. Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: Development, genetic and nutritional control, and identification of putative markers. Anim. 4:303−319.
Hocquette, J.F., R. Botreau, B. Picard, A. Jacquet, D.W. Pethick, and N.D. Scollan. 2012a. Opportunities for predicting and manipulating beef quality. Meat Sci. 92:197–209.
Hocquette, J.F., I. Cassar-Malek, C. Jurie, D. Bauchart, B. Picard, and G. Renand. 2012b. Relationships between muscle growth potential, intramuscular fat content and different indicators of muscle fiber types in young Charolais bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 83:750–758.
Hocquette, J.F., A. Jacquet, G. Giraud, I. Legrand, P. Sans, P. Mainsant, and W. Verbeke. 2013. Quality of food products and consumer attitudes in France. In M. Klopcic, A. Kuipers, and J. F. Hocquette (Eds.), Consumer attitudes to food quality products. EAAP Publication, 133, pp. 67–82, Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Hocquette, J.F., P. Meurice, J.P. Brun, C. Jurie, C. Denoyelle, D. Bauchart, G. Renand, G.R. Nute, and B. Picard. 2011b. The challenge and limitations of combining data: A case study examining the relationship between intramuscular fat content and flavor intensity based on the BIF-BEEF database. Anim. Prod. Sci. 51:975–981.
Hocquette, J.F., L. Van Wezemael, S. Chriki, I. Legrand,W. Verbeke, L. Farmer, N.D. Scollan, R. Polkinghorne, R. Rødbotteni, P. Allen, and D.W. Pethick. 2014. Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability. Meat Sci. 97:316–322.
Hocquette, J.F., C. Capel, V. David, D. Guéméné, J. Bidanel, C. Ponsart, P.L. Gastinel, P.Y. Le Bail, P. Monget, P. Mormède, M. Barbezant,F. Guillou, and J.L. Peyraud. 2012c. Objectives and applications of phenotyping network setup for livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 83:517–528.
Hodgen, J.M.J. 2006. Factors influencing off flavor in beef, Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Hodges, J.H., V.R. Cahill, and H.W. Ockerman. 1974. Effect of vacuum packaging on weight loss, microbial growth and palatability of fresh beef wholesale cuts. J. Food Sci. 39:143–146.
Hodnett, D.W., N.A. Jorgensen, and H.F. Deluca. 1992. 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D3 plus 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 reduces parturient paresis in dairy cows fed high dietary calcium. J. Dairy Sci. 75:485–491.
Hoehne, A., G. Nuernberg, C. Kuehn, and K. Nuernberg. 2012. Relationship between intramuscular fat content, selected carcass traits, and fatty acid profile in bulls using a F2-population. Meat Sci. 90:629–635.
Holland, B.P., L.O. Burciaga-Robles, D.L. Van Overbeke, J.N. Shook, D.L. Step, C.J. Richards, and C.R. Krehbiel. 2010. Effect of bovine respiratory disease during preconditioning on subsequent feedyard performance, carcass characteristics, and beef attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2486–2499.
Hollis, B.W.,H.R. Conrad, and J.W. Hibbs. 1977. Changes in plasma 25-hydroxycholicalciferol and selected blood parameters after injection of massive doses of cholecalciferol or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in non-lactating dairy cows. J. Nutr. 107:606–613.
Holloway, J.W. 2007. The supply of a consistent, distinctive beef product. Report to SYSCO Foods. February 7, 2007.
Holloway, J.W. and B.G. Warrington. 2009. Evaluation of tenderness by Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Slice Shear Force for 13 muscles from Bonsmara crossbred steer carcasses. in The Supply of a Distinctive Beef Product. (Ed.) J.W. Holloway. Amarillo TX.
Holloway, J.W., R.K. Miller, P.E. Strydom, B.G. Warrington, and G.E. Carstens. 2004. Influence of postweaning cattle growth systems on carcass characteristics, retain product yield, and tenderness. Beef Cattle Research in Texas, Dept. Anim. Sci. Texas A&M, College Station, TX. August, 2004. pp. 121-128.
Holmer, S.F., D.M. Fernandez-Duenas, S.M. Scramlin, C.M. Souza, D.D. Boler, F.K. McKeith, J. Killefer, R.J. Delmore, J.L. Beckett, T.E. Lawrence, D.L. VanOverbeke, G.G. Hilton, M.E. Dikeman, J.C. Brooks, R.A. Zinn, M.N. Streeter, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, D.M. Allen, and D.A. Yates. 2009. The effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on meat quality of calf-fed Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3730–3738.
Holmes, K.C., D. Popp, W. Gebhard, and W. Kabsch. 1990. Atomic model of the actin filament. Nat. 347: 44–49.
Holzer, Z., B.W. Berry, A.M. Campbell, A.M. Spanier, and M.B. Solomon. 2004. Effect of koshering and hydronynamic pressure on beef color, odor, and microbial loads. J. Muscle Foods 15:69–82.
Honikel, K.O. 1997. Reference methods supported by OECD and their use in Mediterranean meat products. Food Chem. 59:573-582.
Hood, D.E. 1980. Factors affecting the rate of metmyoglobin accumulation in prepackaged beef. Meat Sci. 4:247–265.
Hood, R.L., and C.E. Allen. 1978. Lipogenesis in isolated intramuscular adipose tissue from four bovine muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 46:1626–1633.
Hood, D.E., and E.B. Riordan. 1973. Discoloration in pre-packaged beef: measurement by reflectance spectrophotometry and shopper discrimination. J. Food Techn. 8:333-343.
Hope-Jones, M., P.E. Strydom, L. Frylinck, and E.C. Webb. 2012. Effect of dietary betaagonist treatment, vitamin D supplementation and electrical stimulation of carcasses on color and drip loss of steaks from feedyard steers. Meat Sci. 90:607–612.
Hopkins, D.L. 1996. Assessment of lamb meat color. Meat Focus Intl. 5:400–401.
Hopkins, D.L., and J.M. Thompson. 2001a. Inhibition of protease activity. Part 1. The effect on tenderness and indicators of proteolysis in ovine muscle. Meat Sci. 59:175–185.
Hopkins, D.L., and J.M. Thompson. 2001b. The relationship between tenderness, proteolysis, muscle contraction and dissociation of actomyosin. Meat Sci. 57:1–12.
Hopkins, D.L., and J.M. Thompson. 2002. Factors contributing to proteolysis and disruption of myofibrillar protein and the impact on tenderisation in beef and sheep meat. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 53:149–166.
Hopkins, D.L., and R.G. Taylor. 2004. Post-mortem muscle proteolysis and meat tenderness. In M.F.W. t. Pas, M.E. Everts, and H.P. Haagsman (Eds.), Muscle development in livestock animals: Physiology, genetics and meat quality, pp. 363–389. Cambridge: CABI Publishing.
Hoppe, S., H.R. Brandt, S. König, G. Erhardt, and M. Gauly. 2010. Temperament traits of beef calves measured under field conditions and their relationships to performance. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1982–1989.
Horcada, A., M.J. Beriain, A. Purroy, G. Lizaso, et. al. 1998. Effect of sex on meat quality of Spanish lamb breeds (Lacha and Rasa Aragonesa). Anim. Sci. 67:541–547.
Horgan, D.J., P.N. Jones, N.L. King, L.B. Kurth, and R. Kuypers. 1991. The relationship between animal age and the thermal stability and cross-link content of collagen from five goat muscles. Meat Sci. 29:251–262.
Horn, G.W., M.D. Cravey, F.T. McCollum, C.A. Strasia, E.G. Krenzer, Jr., and P.L. Claypool. 1995. Infl uence of high-starch vs. high-fi ber energy supplements on performance of stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture and subsequent feedyard performance. J. Anim. Sci. 73:45–54.
Hornick, J.L., C. Van Eenaeme, O. Gerard, I. Dufrasne, and L. Istasse. 2000. Mechanisms of reduced and compensatory growth. Dom. Anim. Endo. 19:121–132.
Hornstein, I., and P.F. Crowe. 1960. Flavor studies on beef and pork. J. Agric. Food Chem. 8: 494-498.
Horst, R.L. 1986. Regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in the dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 69:604–616.
Hostetler, R.L., B.A. Link, W.A., Landmann, and H.A. Fitzhugh. 1972. Effect of carcass suspension on sarcomere length and shear force of some major bovine muscles. J. Food Sci. 38:264–267.
Houseknecht, K.L., C.A. Baile, R.L. Matteri, and M.E. Spurlock. 1998. The biology of leptin: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1405–1420.
Hove, K., R.L. Horst, and E.T. Littledike. 1983. Effects of 1α-hydroxyvitaminD3, 1,25 -dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitaminD3, and 1,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D3 on mineral metabolism and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 66:59–66.
Howard, J.T., S.D. Kachman, M.K. Nielsen, T.L. Mader, and M.L. Spangler. 2013. The effect of myostatin genotype on body temperature during extreme temperature events. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3051–3058.
Huang, F., M. Huang, G. Zhou, X Xu,and M. Xue. 2011a. In vitro proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins from beef skeletal muscle by caspase-3 and caspase-6. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:9658–9663.
Huang, M., F. Huang, M. Xue, X. Xu,and G. Zhou. 2011b. The effect of active caspase-3 on degradation of chicken myofibrillar proteins and structure of myofibrils. Food Chem. 128:22–27.
Huang, Y., A.K. Das, Q.Y. Yang, M.J. Zhu, and M. Du. 2012. Zfp423 promotes adipogenic differentiation of bovine stromal vascular cells. PloS One 7: e47496.
Huff-Lonergan, E., and S.M. Lonergan. 2005. Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Sci. 71:194–204.
Huff-Lonergan, E., T. Mitsuhashi, F. C. Parrish, Jr., and R. M. Robson. 1996a. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting comparisons of purified myofibrils and whole muscle preparations for evaluation titin and nebulin in postmortem bovine muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 74:779–785.
Huff-Lonergan, E., W. Zhang, and S.M. Lonergan. 2010. Biochemistry of postmortem muscle — Lessons on mechanisms of meat tenderization. Meat Sci. 86:184–195.
Huffman, K.L., M.F. Miller, L.C. Hoover, C.K. Wu, H.C. Brittin, and C.B. Ramsey. 1996. Effect of beef tenderness on consumer satisfaction with steaks consumed in the home and restaurant. J. Anim. Sci. 74:91–97.
Hughes, J.M., S.K. Oiseth, P.P. Purslowc, and R.D.Warner. 2014. A structural approach to understanding the interactions between color, water-holding capacity and tenderness. Meat Sci. 98:520–532.
Hunt, M.R., J.F. Legakob, T.T.N. Dinh, A.J. Garmyn, T.G. O’Quinn, C.H. Corbin, R.J. Rathmann, J.C. Brooks, M.F. Miller. 2016. Assessment of volatile compounds, neutral and polar lipid fatty acids of four beef muscles from USDA Choice and Select graded carcasses and their relationships with consumer palatability scores and intramuscular fat content Meat Sci. 116:91–101.
Hunt, M.C., and H.B. Hedrick. 1977a. Profile of fiber types and related properties of five bovine muscles. J. Food Sci. 42:513–517.
Hunt, M.C., and H.B. Hedrick. 1977b. Histochemical and histological characteristics of bovine muscles from four quality groups. J. Food Sci. 42:578–582.
Hunt, M.C., and H.B. Hedrick. 1977c. Chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of bovine muscle from four quality groups. J. Food Sci. 42:716–720.
Hunt, M.C., J.J. Schoenbeck, E.J. Yancey, M.E. Dikeman, T.M. Loughin, and P.B. Addis. 2003. Effects of post-exsanguination vascular infusion of carcasses with calcium chloride or a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates on beef display-color stability. J. Anim. Sci. 81:669–675.
Hunt, M.R., A.J. Garmyn, T.G. O’Quinn, C.H. Corbin, C.H. Legako, R.J. Rathmann, et. al. 2014. Consumer assessment of beef palatability fromfour beefmuscles from USDA choice and select graded carcasses. Meat Sci. 98:1–8.
Hunter, R. S., and R.W. Harold. 1987. The measurement of appearance. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Hunter, R.A., H.M. Burrow, and G.J. McCrabb. 2001a. Sustained growth promotion, carcass and meat quality of steers slaughtered at three liveweights. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 41:1033–1040.
Hunter, R.A., G.J. McCrabb, and C.J. O’Neill. 2001b. The influence of hormonal growth promotants on marbling. Proc. CRC Marbl. Symp. 129–133.
Hurwitz, S. 1996. Homeostatic control of plasma calcium concentration. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 31:41–100.
Hwang, I.H., and J.M. Thompson. 2001a. The effect of time and type of electrical stimulation on the calpain system and meat tenderness in beef longissimus dorsi muscle. Meat Sci. 58:135–144.
Hwang, I.H., and J.M. Thompson. 2001b. The interaction between pH and temperature decline early postmortem on the calpain system and objective tenderness in electrically stimulated beef longissimus dorsi muscle. Meat Sci. 58:167–174.
Hwang, I. H., C.E. Devine, and D.L. Hopkins. 2003. The biochemical and physical effects of electrical stimulation on beef and sheep meat tenderness. Meat Sci. 65:677−691.
Hwang, I.H., B.Y. Park, S.H. Cho, and J.M. Lee. 2004. Effects of muscle shortening and proteolysis on Warner-Bratzler shear force in beef longissimus and semitendinosus. Meat Sci. 68:497–505.
Hwang, I.H., B.Y. Park, J.H. Kim, S.H. Cho, and J.M. Lee. 2005. Assessment of postmortem proteolysis by gel-based proteome analysis and its relationship to meat quality traits in pig longissimus. Meat Sci. 69:79–91.
Hwang, Y.H., G.D. Kim, J.Y. Jeong, S.J. Hur, and S.T. Joo. 2010. The relationship between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality traits of highly marbled Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) steers. Meat Sci. 86:456–461.
Igo, J.L., D.L. Van Overbeke, D.R. Woerner, J.D. Tatum, D.L. Pendell, L.L. Vedral, G.G. Mafi, M.C. Moore, R.O. McKeith, G.D. Gray, D.B. Griffin, D.S., Hale, J.W. Savell, and K.E. Belk. 2013. Phase I of The National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Quantifying willingness-to-pay, best-worst scaling, and current status of quality characteristics in different beef industry marketing sectors. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1907–1919.
Imafidon, G. I., and A.M. Spanier. 1994. Unraveling the secret ofmeat flavor. Trends in Food Science Tech. 5:315–321.
INAO 2009. Notice technique définissant les critères minimaux à remplir pour l’obtention d’un label rouge en ‘Gros bovins de boucherie’. Available at. http://www.inao.gouv.fr/public/home.php?pageFromIndex=textesPages/ Label_rouge_(Guides_et_NT)410.php~mnu=410 (Verified November 2010).
Inoue, K., M. Kobayashi, N. Shoji, and K. Kato. 2011. Genetic parameters for fatty acid composition and feed efficiency traits in Japanese Black cattle. Anim. 5:987–994.
Inoue, K., S. Hirabara, T. Nade, K. Hujita, and K. Yamauchi. 2002. Effects of sire on ether extract and fatty acid composition of the M. longissimus dorsi in crossbred between Japanese black bulls and Holstein cows. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho 73:381–387.
Insani, E.M., A. Eyherabide, G. Grigioni, A.M. Sancho, N.A. Pensel, and A.M. Descalzo. 2008. Oxidative stability and its relationship with natural antioxidants during refrigerated retail display of beef produced in Argentina. Meat Sci. 79:444–452.
Insausti, K., M.J. Beriain, A. Purroy, P. Alberti, L. Lizaso, and B. Hernandez. 1999. Color stability of beef from different Spanish native cattle breeds stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere. Meat Sci. 53:241-249.
Irie, M., A. Oka, and F. Iwaki. 2003. Fibre-optic method for estimation of bovine fat quality. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 83:483–486.
Ishida, Y., H. Taniguchi, and S. Baba. 1988. Possible involvement of 1 alpha,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 in proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Biochem. Biophys. Re. Com. 151:1122–1127.
Islas, A., T. Edwards, and S.A. Soto-Navarro. 2010. Effects of digestible fiber and yellow grease supplementation to steers grazing small-grain pastures on grazing and feedyard finishing performance. Prof. Anim. Sci. 26:498–503.
Ito, S., A.C. D’Alessio, O.V. Taranova, K. Hong, L.C. Sowers, and Y. Zhang. 2010. Role of Tet proteins in 5mC to 5hmC conversion, ES-cell self-renewal and inner cell mass specification. Nat. 466:1129–1133.
Jackson, S.P., M.F. Miller, and R.D. Green. 1997. Phenotypic characterization of Rambouillet sheep expressing the callipyge gene: II. Carcass characteristics and retail yield. J. Anim. Sci. 75:125–132.
Jacobi, S.K., N.K. Gabler, K.M. Ajuwon, J.E. Davis, and M.E. Spurlock. 2006. Adipocytes, myofibers, and cytokine biology: New horizons in the regulation of growth and body composition. J. Anim. Sci. 84(Suppl.):E140–E149.
Jacobson, M., and F. Fenton. 1956. Effects of three levels of nutrition and age of animals on quality of beef. I. Palatability, cooking data, moisture, fat, and nitrogen. Food Res. 21: 415-426.
Jago, J.G., L.R. Matthews, J.J. Bass, and T.W. Knight. 1996. A comparison of two methods of castration of post-pubertal beef cattle and their effect on behavior, growth and ultimate pH. Proc. N. Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 56:395–397.
Jakobsen, M., and G. Bertelsen. 2000. Color stability and lipid oxidation of fresh beef. Development of a response surface model for predicting the effects of temperature, storage time, and modified atmosphere composition. Meat Sci. 54:49-57.
Janett, F., T. Gerig, A.C. Tschuor, S. Amatayakul-Chantler, J. Walker, R. Howard, H. Bollwein, and R. Thun. 2012. Vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) with Bopriva significantly decreases testicular development, serumtestosterone levels and physical activity in pubertal bulls. Theriogenology 78:182–188.
Jayathilakan, K., G.K. Sharma, K. Radhakrishna, and A.S. Bawa. 2007. Antioxidant potential of synthetic and natural antioxidants and its effect on warmed-over-flavour in different species of meat. Food Chem. 105:908–916.
Jeacocke, R.E. 1993. The concentrations of free magnesium and free calcium ions both increase in skeletal muscle fibers entering Rigor mortis. Meat Sci. 35:27–45.
Jenkins, K.H., J.T. Vasconcelos, J.B. Hinkle, S.A. Furman, A.S. de Mello, Jr., L.S. Senaratne, S. Pokharel, and C.R. Calkins. 2011. Evaluation of performance, carcass characteristics, and sensory attributes from finishing steers fed field peas. J. Anim. Sci. 89: 1167-1172.
Jenschke, B.E., J.M. Hodgen, and C.R. Calkins. 2006. Fatty acids and minerals affect the liver like off-flavor in cooked beef. In Proceedings of the 52 nd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, 1318, August 2006, Dublin, Ireland.
Jensen, J.M., C. Prestat, K.J. Ryan, K.L. Robins, C.L. Homco-Ryan, F. McKeith, and M.S. Brewer. 2003. Enhancement solution effects on shelf-life, color and sensory characteristics of pork chops during retail display. J. Food Qual. 26:271–283.
Jeong, J.Y., S.J. Hur, H.S. Yang, S.H. Moon, Y.H. Hwang, G.B. Park, and S.T. Joo. 2009. Discoloration characteristics of 3 major muscles from cattle during cold storage. J. Food Sci. 74: C1–C5.
Jeremiah, L.E., and L.L. Gibson. 1999. The influence of genotype on beef palatability and cooking properties. An evaluation of Wagyu F1 crosses and other genotypes under North American feedyard conditions. J. Muscle Foods, 10:177–194.
Jeremiah, L.E., and L.L. Gibson. 2003a. Cooking influences on palatability of roasts from the beef hip. Food Res. Intl. 36:1–9.
Jeremiah, L.E., and L.L. Gibson. 2003b. The effects of postmortem product handling and aging time on beef palatability. Food Res. Intl. 36:929–941.
Jeremiah, L.E., G.C. Smith, and Z.L. Carpenter. 1971. Palatability of individual muscles from ovine leg steaks related to chronological age and marbling. J. Food Sci. 36:45–47.
Jeremiah, L.E., L.L. Gibson, J.L. Aalhus, and M.E.R. Dugan. 2003a. Assessment of palatability attributes of the major beef muscles. Meat Sci. 65: 949-958.
Jeremiah, L.E., K.A. Beauchemin, S.D.M. Jones, L.L. Gibson, and L.M. Rode. 1998. The influence of dietary cereal grain source and feed enzymes on the cooking properties and palatability attributes of beef. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 271–275.
Jerónimo, E., C.M.M. Alfaia, S.P. Alves, M.T.P. Dentinho, J.A.M. Prates, V. Vasta, et. al. 2012. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. In combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality. Meat Sci. 92:841–847.
Jia, X., K. Hollung, M. Therkildsen, K.I. Hildrum, and E. Bendixen. 2006. Proteome analysis of early post-mortem changes in two bovine muscle types: M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosis. J. Proteome Res. 6:936–944.
Jia, X., M. Ekman, H. Grove, E.M. Frgestad, L. Aass, K.I. Hildrum, and K. Hollung. 2007. Proteome changes in bovine longissimus thoracis muscle during the early postmortem storage period. J. Proteome Res. 6:2720–2731.
Jiang, H., D.H. Xiong, Y.F. Guo, H. Shen, P. Xiao, F. Yang, et. al. 2007. Association analysis of vitamin D-binding protein gene polymorphisms with variations of obesity-related traits in Caucasian nuclear families. Intl. J. Obesity 31:1319–1324.
Jiang, J., and Y.L. Xiong. 2016. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review. Meat Sci. 120:107–117.
Johnson, B.J., P.T. Anderson, J.C. Meiske, and W.R. Dayton. 1996. Effect of a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant on feedyard performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass composition of feedyard steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74:363–371.
Johnson, D.D., R.D. Huffman, S.E. Williams, and D.D. Hargrove. 1990. Effects of percentage Brahman and Angus breeding, age-season of feeding, and slaughter end point on meat palatability and muscle characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1980-1986.
Johnson, P.B., and G.V. Civille. 1986. A standardized lexicon of meat WOF descriptors. J. Sensory Studies 1:99–104.
Johnson, R.C., C.M. Chen, T.S. Muller, W.J. Costello, J.R. Romans, and K.W. Jones. 1988. Characterization of the muscles within the beef forequarter. J. Food Sci. 53:1247–1250.
Johnson,M.I., and G. Tabasam. 2003. An investigation into the analgesic effects of interferential currents and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on experimentally induced ischemic pain in otherwise pain-free volunteers. Phys. Therapy 83:208–223.
Johnston, D.J., and H.U. Graser. 2010. Estimated gene frequencies of GeneSTAR markers and their size of effects on meat tenderness, marbling, and feed efficiency in temperate and tropical beef cattle breeds across a range of production systems. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1917–1935.
Jones, S. 2013. Bovine Myology. Available at http://bovine.unl.edu. Accessed: 10 January 2016.
Jones, S.J., D.E. Burson, and C. R. Calkins. 2001. Muscle profiling and bovine myology. Available at http://bovine.unl.edu Accessed June 28, 2006.
Jones, S. J., D.L. Starkey, C.R. Calkins, and J.D. Crouse. 1990. Myofibrillar protein turnover in feed-restricted and realimented beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2707–2715.
Joo, S.T., G.D. Kim. Y.H. Hwang, and Y.C. Ryu. 2013. Control of fresh meat quality through manipulation of muscle fiber characteristics. Meat Sci. 95:828–836.
Joulia-Ekaza, D., and G. Cabello. 2006. Myostatin regulation of muscle development: Molecular basis, natural mutations, physiopathological aspects. Exper. Cell Res. 312:2401−2414.
Juarez, M., J.A. Basarab, V.S. Baron, M. Valera, I.L. Larsen, and J.L. Aalhus. 2012a Quantifying the relative contribution of ante- and post-mortem factors to the variability in beef texture. Anim. 6:1878–1887.
Jung, E.Y., Y.H. Hwang, and S.T. Joo. 2015. Chemical components and meat quality traits related to palatability of ten primal cuts from Hanwoo carcasses. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Res. 35:859–866.
Jung, E.Y., Y.H. Hwang, and S.T. Joo. 2016a. Muscle profiling to improve the value of retail meat cuts. Meat Sci. 120:47–53.
Kadel, M.J., D.J. Johnson, H.M. Burrow, H.U. Graser, and D.M. Ferguson. 2006. Genetics of flight time and other measures of temperament and their value as selection criteria for improving meat quality traits in tropically adapted breeds of beef cattle. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 57:1029–1035.
Kambadur, R., M. Sharma, T.P.L. Smith, and J.J. Bass. 1997. Mutations in myostatin (GDF8) in double muscled Belgian Blue cattle. Genome Res. 7:910-915.
Kamruzzaman, M., G. ElMasry, D.W. Sun, and P. Allen. 2011. Application of NIR hyperspectral imaging for discrimination of lamb muscles. J. Food Eng. 104:332–340.
Kamruzzaman, M., Y. Makino, and S. Oshita. 2015a. Non-invasive analytical technology for the detection of contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish: A review. Analytica Chimica Acta 853:19–29.
Kamruzzaman, M., S. Nakauchi, and G. ElMasry. 2015. High throughput screening for food safety assessment: Biosensor technologies, hyperspectral imaging and practical application. In A.K. Bhunia, M.S. Kim, and C.R. Taitt (Eds.), Online screening of meat and poultry product quality and safety using hyperspectral imaging. pp. 425–466. Woodhead Publishing.
Kamruzzaman, M., Y. Makino, and S. Oshita. 2016a. Online monitoring of red meat color using hyperspectral imaging. Meat Sci. 116:110–117
Kamruzzaman, M., Y. Makino, and S. Oshita. 2016b. Rapid and non-destructive detection of chicken adulteration in minced beef using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and machine learning. J. Food Eng. 170:8–15.
Kamstra, J.H., E. Hruba, B. Blumberg, A. Janesick, S. Mandrup, T. Hamers, and J. Legler. 2014. Transcriptional and epigeneticmechanisms underlying enhanced in vitro adipocyte differentiation by the brominated flame retardant BDE-47. Envir. Sci. Tech. 48:4110–4119.
Kanner, J., S. Harel, and A.M. Salan. 1988. The generation of ferryl or hydroxyl radicals during interaction of hemeproteins with hydrogen peroxide. In M. G. Simic, K. A. Taylor, J. F. Ward, and C. von Sonntag (Eds.), Oxygen radicals in biology and medicine pp. 145–148. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
Karamichou, E., R.I. Richardson, G.R. Nute, J.D. Wood, and S.C. Bishop. 2007. Genetic analyses of sensory characteristics and relationships with fatty acid composition in the meat from Scottish Blackface lambs. Anim. 1:1524–1531.
Kasapidou, E., J.D. Wood, R.I. Richardson,L.A. Sinclair, R.G. Wilkinson, and M.E. Enser. 2012. Effect of vitamin E supplementation and diet on fatty acid composition and on meat color and lipid oxidation of lamb leg steaks displayed in modified atmosphere packs. Meat Sci. 90:908–916.
Kashyap, V., and L.J. Gudas. 2010. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms distinguish retinoic acid-mediated transcriptional responses in stem cells and fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 285:14534–14548.
Kato, K., H. Ito, K. Kamei, Y. Inaguma, I. Iwamototo, and S. Sagal. 1998. Phosphorylation of αB-crystallin in mitotic cells and identification of enzymatic activities responsible for phosphorylation. J. Biol. Chem. 273:28346–28354.
Kato, K., S. Goto, Y. Inaguma, K. Hasegawa, R. Morishita, and T. Asano. 1994. Purification and characterization of a 20-kDa protein that is highly homologous to αB crystallin. J. Biol. Chem. 269:15302–15309.
Katz, L. S. 2007. Sexual behavior of domesticated ruminants. Horm. Behav. 52:56–63.
Kauffman, R.G., Z.L. Carpenter, R.W. Bray, and W.G. Hoekstra. 1964. Biochemical properties of pork and their relationship to quality II. Intramuscular fat. J. Food Sci. 29:70–74.
Kawada, T., Y. Kamei, and E. Sugimoto. 1996. The possibility of active form of vitamins A and D as suppressors on adipocyte development via ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators. Intl. J. Obesity Related Metab. Disorders 20:S52–S57.
Kellermeier, J.D., A.W. Tittor, J.C. Brooks, M.L. Galyean, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, M.N. Streeter, B.J. Johnson, and M.F. Miller. 2009. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without an estrogen-trenbolone acetate terminal implant on carcass traits, retail cutout, tenderness, and muscle fiber diameter in finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci.87:3702–3711.
Kemp, C.M., R.G. Bardsley, and T. Parr. 2006. Changes in caspase activity during the postmortem conditioning period and its relationship to shear force in porcine longissimus muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2841–2846.
Kemp, C.M., W.T. Oliver, T.L. Wheeler, A.H. Chishti, and M. Koohmaraie. 2013. The effects of Capn1 gene inactivation on skeletal muscle growth, development, and atrophy, and the compensatory role of other proteolytic systems. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3155–3167.
Kenny, F.J., and P.V. Tarrant. 1988. The effect of estrus behavior on muscle glycogen concentration and dark cutting in beef heifers. Meat Sci. 22:21–31.
Kerr, J.F., A.H. Wyllie, and A.R. Currie. 1972. Apoptosis: A basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Brit. J. Cancer 26:239–257.
Kerry, J. P., D.J. Buckley, and P.A. Morrissey. 2000. Improvement of oxidative stability of beef and lamb with vitamin E. In E. A. Decker, C. Faustman, and C. J. Lopez-Bote (Eds.), Antioxidants in muscle foods: Nutritional strategies to improve quality, pp. 229–262. New York: Wiley Interscience.
Kerscher, R., and W. Grosch. 1998. Quantification of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, and 2-mercapto-3-pentanone in heated meat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:1954–1958.
Kerth, C.R., J.L. Montgomery, J.L. Lansdell, C.B. Ramsey, and M.F. Miller. 2002. Shear gradient in longissimus steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2390-2395.
Khan, A.W., and YK. Kim. 1975. Effect of calcium on isometric tension, glycolysis and tenderness of poultry breast meat. J. Food Sci. 40:1119–1121.
Khan, M.I., C. Jo,and M.R. Tariq. 2015. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors — A systematic review. Meat Sci. 110:278–284.
Khliji, S., R. van de Ven, T.A. Lamb, M. Manza, and D.L. Hopkins. 2010. Relationship between consumer ranking of lamb color and objective measures or color. Meat Sci. 85:224–229.
Kilgour, R. J., G.L. Melville, and P.L. Greenwood. 2006. Individual differences in the reaction of beef cattle to situations involving social isolation, close proximity of humans, restraint and novelty. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 99:21–40.
Killinger, K.M., C.R. Calkins, W.J. Umberger, D.M. Feuz, and K.M. Eskridg. 2004a. Consumer visual preference and value for beef steaks differing in marbling level and color. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3288–3293a.
Killinger, K.M., C.R. Calkins, W.J. Umberger,D.M. Feuz, and K.M. Eskridge. 2004b. Consumer sensory acceptance and value for beef steaks of similar tenderness, but differing in marbling level. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3294–3301.
Killinger, K.M., C.R. Calkins, W.J. Umberger, D.M. Feuz, and K.M. Eskridge. 2004c. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance and value of domestic beef steaks and steaks from a branded, Argentine beef program. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3302–3307.
Kim, E.J., R.I. Richardson, M.R.F. Lee, K. Gibson, and N.D. Scollan. 2010a. Effect of lipid-rich plant extract on the fatty acids composition and meat quality of Belgium-Blue cross bred steers. Proc. Brit. Soc. Anim. Sci. pp. 131.
Kim, G.D., J.Y. Jeong, S.J. Hur, H.S. Yang, J.T. Jeon, and S.T. Joo. 2010b. The relationship between meat color (CIE L* and a*), myoglobin content, and their influence on muscle fiber characteristics and pork quality. Korean J. Food Sci. of Anim. Resources 30:626–633.
Kim, N.K., S. Cho, S.H. Lee, H.R. Park, C.S. Lee, Y.M. Cho, Y.H. Choy, D. Yoon, S.K. Im, and E.W. Park. 2008. Proteins in longissimus muscle of Korean native cattle and their relationship to meat quality. Meat Sci. 80:1068–1073.
Kim, S.Y., J.Y. Je, and S.K. Kim. 2007. Purification and characterization of antioxidant peptide from hoki (Johnius belengerii) frame protein by gastrointestinal digestion. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18:31–38.
Kim, Y.H., E. Huff-Lonergan, J.G. Sebranek, and S.M. Lonergan. 2010c. High-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging system induces lipid and myoglobin oxidation and protein polymerization. Meat Sci. 85:759–767.
Kim, Y.H.B., M. Frandsen, and K. Rosenvold. 2011. Effect of aging prior to freezing on color stability of ovine longissimus muscle. Meat Sci. 88:332–337.
Kim, Y.H.B., R. Kemp, and L.M. Samuelsson. 2016. Effects of dry-aging on meat quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins. Meat Sci. 111:168–176.
Kim, Y.H.B, B. Meyers, H.W. Kim, A.M. Liceag, R.P. Lemenager. 2017. Effects of stepwise dry/wet-aging and freezing on meat quality of beef loins. Meat Sci.: 57–63.
King, D.A., S.D. Shackelford, A.B. Rodriguez, and T.L. Wheeler. 2011. Effect of time of measurement on the relationship between metmyoglobin reducing activity and oxygen consumption to instrumental measures of beef longissimus color stability. Meat Sci. 87:26–32.
King, D.A., S.D. Shackelford, N. Kalchayanand, and T.L. Wheeler. 2012. Sampling and aging effects on beef longissimus color stability measurements. J. Anim. Sci. 90:3596–3605.
King, D.A., T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, K. D. Pfeiffer, R. Nickelson, and M. Koohmaraie. 2009. Effect of blade tenderization, aging time, and aging temperature on tenderness of beef longissimus lumborum and gluteus medius. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2952–2960.
King, D.A., C.E. Schuehle Pfeiffer, R.D., Randel, T.H. Welsh, Jr., R.A. Oliphint, B.E. Baird, K.O. Curley, Jr., R.C. Vann, D.S. Hale, and J.W. Savell. 2006. Influence of animal temperament and stress responsiveness on the carcass quality and beef tenderness of feedyard cattle. Meat Sci. 74:546–556.
Kinman, L. A., G.G. Hilton, C.J. Richards, J.B. Morgan, C.R. Krehbiel, R.B. Hicks, J.W. Dillwith, and D.L. VanOverbeke. 2011. Impact of feeding various amounts of wet and dry distillers grains to yearling steers on palatability, fatty acid profile, and retail case life of longissimus muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 89:179–184.
Kinsella, J. E. 1990. Flavor perception and binding. International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials, 1:215–226.
Kinsman, D.M. 1961. Variation in tenderness of a number of muscles within the beef carcass. J. Anim. Sci. 20:199.
Kirchofer, K.S., C.B. Calkins, and B.L. Gwartney. 2002. Fiber type composition of muscles of the beef chuck and round. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2872–2878.
Knee, B.W., L.J. Cummins, P. Walker, and R. Warner. 2004. Seasonal variation in muscle glycogen in beef steers. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 44:729–734.
Knee, B.W., L.J. Cummins, P.J. Walker, G.A. Kearney, and R.D. Warner. 2007. Reducing dark-cutting in pasture-fed beef steers by high-energy supplementation. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 47:1277−1283.
Knobel-Graves, SD.M., J.C. Brooks, B.J. Johnson, J.D. Starkey, J.L. Beckett, J.M. Hodgen, J.P. Hutcheson, M.N. Streeter, C.L. Thomas, R.J. Rathmann, A.J. Garmyn, and M.F. Miller. 2016. Effect of vitamin D3, zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation, and postmortem aging on shear force measurements of three muscles in finishing beef steers. Meat Sci. 94:2637–2647.
Knowles, T. G. 1999. A review of the road transport of cattle. Vet. Rec. 144:197–201.
Knowles, T. G., and P. Warriss. 2007. Stress physiology of animals during transport. Pp 312–328 in Livestock Handling and Transport. T. Grandin, ed. CAB Int., Cambridge, MA.
Knowles, T.G., S.N. Brown, J.E. Edwards, A.J. Phillips, and P.D. Warriss. 1999. Effect on young calves of a one-hour feeding stop during a 19-hour road journey. Vet. Record 144:687–692.
Ko, C.Y., H.C. Hsu, M.R. Shen, W.C. Chang, and J.M. Wang. 2008. Epigenetic silencing of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta activity by YY1/polycomb group/DNA methyltransferase complex. J. Biol. Chem. 283:30919–30932.
Koch, R. M., L. V. Cundiff, and K. E. Gregory. 1982. Heritabilities and genetic, environmental and phenotypic correlations of carcass traits in a population of diverse biological types and their implications in selection programs. J. Anim. Sci. 55:13191329.
Koh, T.J., and J. Escobedo. 2004. Cytoskeletal disruption and small heat shock protein translocation immediately after lengthening contractions. Amer. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 286:C713–C722.
Kokta, T. A., M. V. Dodson, A. Gertler, and R. A. Hill. 2004. Intercellular signaling between adipose tissue and muscle tissue. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 27:303–331.
Kołczak, T., E. Pospiech, K. Palka, and J. Łącki. 2003. Changes of myofibrillar and centrifugal drip proteins and shear force of psoas major and minor and semitendinosus muscles from calves, heifers and cows during post-mortem aging. Meat Sci. 64:69–75.
Konarska, M., K. Kuchida, G. Tarr, R.J Polkinghorne. 2017. Relationships between marbling measures across principal muscles. Meat Sci. 123: 67–78.
Konda-Naganathan, G., L.M. Grimes, J. Subbiah, C.R. Calkins, A. Samal, and G.E. Meyer. 2008a. Visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for beef tenderness prediction. Comp. Electr. Agric. 64:225–233.
Konda-Naganathan, G., L. Grimes, J. Subbiah, C.R. Calkins, A. Samal, and G. Meyer. 2008b. Partial least squares analysis of near-infrared hyperspectral images for beef tenderness prediction. Sens Instrum. Food Qual. Safety 2:178–188.
Kong, B., H. Zhang, and Y.L. Xiong. 2010. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action. Meat Sci. 85:772–778.
Kong, J., and Y.C. Li. 2006. Molecular mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Amer. J. Physiol. Endo. Metab. 290:E916–E924.
Konishi, M. 1998. Cytoplasmic free concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in skeletal muscle fibers at rest and during contraction. Jpn. J. Physiol. 48:421–438.
Koohmaraie, M. 1988. The role of endogenous proteases in meat tenderness. Proc. 41st Ann. Recip. Meat Conf. 41:89–100.
Koohmaraie, M. 1992a. The role of Ca2+-dependent proteases (calpains) in postmortem proteolysis and meat tenderness. Biochimie 74:239–245.
Koohmaraie, M. 1992b. Effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on autolysis and catalytic activity of bovine skeletal muscle mu-calpain. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3071–3080.
Koohmaraie, M. 1992c. Ovine skeletal muscle multicatalytic proteinase complex (proteasome): purification, characterization, and comparison of its effects on myofibrils with m-calpain. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3697–3708.
Koohmaraie, M. 1992d. Role of the neutral proteinases in postmortem muscle protein degradation and meat tenderness. Proc. Recip. Meat Conf. 45:63.
Koohmaraie, M. 1994. Muscle proteinases and meat aging. Meat Sci. 36:93−104.
Koohmaraie, M. 1996. Biochemical factors regulating the toughening and tenderization processes of meat. Meat Sci. 43:193–201.
Koohmaraie,M., and G.H. Geesink. 2006. Contribution of postmortemmuscle biochemistry to the delivery of consistent meat quality with particular focus on the calpain system. Meat Sci. 74:34–43.
Koohmaraie, M., J. D. Crouse, and H. J. Mersmann. 1989. Acceleration of postmortem tenderization in ovine carcasses through infusion of calcium chloride: Effect of concentration and ionic strength. J. Anim. Sci. 67:934–942.
Koohmaraie, M., G. Whipple, and J.D. Crouse. 1990. Acceleration of postmortem tenderization in lamb and brahman-cross beef carcasses through infusion of calcium chloride. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1278–1283.
Koohmaraie, M., T.L. Wheeler, and S.D. Shackleford. 1994. Beef tenderness: regulation and prediction. Beef Vanguard ’94 Intl. Congr., Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Koohmaraie, M., M.E. Doumit and T.L. Wheeler. 1996. Meat toughening does not occur when meat shortening is prevented. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2935-2942.
Koohmaraie, M., S.D. Shackelford, and T.L. Wheeler. 1996. Effects of a b-adrenergic agonist (L-644,969) and male sex condition on muscle growth and meat quality of callipyge lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:70–79.
Koohmaraie, M., S.D. Shackelford, and T.L. Wheeler. 1998. Effect of pre-rigor freezing and post-rigor calcium chloride injection on the tenderness of callipyge longissimus. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1427–1432.
Koohmaraie, M., A.S. Babiker, R.A. Merkel, and T.R. Dutson. 1988a. Role of Ca ++ dependent proteases and lysosomal enzymes in postmortem changes in bovine skeletal muscle. J. Food Sci. 53: 1253-1257.
Koohmaraie, M., S.C. Seideman, J.E. Schollmeyer, T.R. Dutson, and A.S. Babiker. 1988b. Factors associated with the tenderness of three bovine muscles. J. Food Sci. 53:407–410.
Koohmaraie, M., A.S. Babiker, A.L. Schroeder, R.A. Merkel, and T.R. Dutson. 1988c. Acceleration of postmortem tenderization process of ovine carcass through activation of Ca 2+-dependent proteases. J. Food. Sci. 53:1638–1641.
Koohmaraie, M., G. Whipple, D.H. Kretchmar, J.D. Crouse,and H.J. Mersmann. 1991. Postmortem proteolysis in longissimus muscle from beef, lamb and pork carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 69:617–624.
Koohmaraie, M., M.P. Kent, S.D. Shackelford, E. Veiseth, and T.L. Wheeler. 2002. Meat tenderness and muscle growth: Is there any relationship? Meat Sci. 62:345−352.
Koohmaraie, M., J. Killefer, M.D. Bishop, S. D., Shackelford, T.L. Wheeler, and J.R. Arbona. 1995. Calpastatin-based methods for predicting meat tenderness. In A. Ouali, D. Demeyer, and F. Smulders (Eds.), Expression of tissue proteinases and regulation of protein degradation as related to meat quality (pp. 395–412). Utrecht, The Netherlands: EECEAMST.
Koohmaraie, M., T.M. Arthur, J.M. Bosilevac, M. Guerini, S.D. Shackelford, and T.L. Wheeler. 2005. Post-harvest interventions to reduce/eliminate pathogens in beef. Meat Sci. 71:79−91.
Koots, K.R., J.P. Gibson, C. Smith, and J.W. Wilton. 1994. Analyses of published genetic parameter estimates for beef production traits. Heritability. Anim Breed. Abstr. 62:309-338.
Korkeala, H., O. Maki-Petays, T. Alanko, and O. Servettula. 1986. Determination of pH in meat. Meat Sci. 18:121-132.
Kosulwat, S., H. Greenfiel, and A. Buckle. 2003. True retention of nutrients on cooking of Australian retail lamb cuts of differing carcass classification characteristics. Meat Sci. 65:1407–1412.
Koutsidis, G., J.S. Elmore, M.J. Oruna-Concha, M.M. Campo, J.D. Wood, and D.S. Mottram. 2008a. Water-soluble precursors of beef flavour: I. Effect of diet and breed. Meat Sci. 79:124–130.
Koutsidis, G., J.S. Elmore, M.J. Oruna-Concha, M.M. Campo, J.D. Wood, and D.S. Mottram. 2008b. Water-soluble precursors of beef flavour. Part II: Effect of post-mortem conditioning. Meat Sci. 79:270–277.
Kovanen, V., H. Suominen, and E. Heikkinen. 1984. Mechanical properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle with special reference to collagen and endurance training. J. Biomech. 17: 725–735.
Krauss, R. M., R.H. Eckel, B. Howard, L.J. Appel, S.R. Daniels, R.J. Deckelbaum, J.W. Erdman Jr., P. Kris-Etherton, I.J. Goldberg, T.A. Kotchen, A.H. Lichtenstein, W.E. Mitch, R. Mullis, K. Robinson, J. Wylie-Rosett, S. St Jeor, J. Suttie, D.L. Tribble, and T.L. Bazzarre. 2000. AHA Dietary Guidelines: Revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Stroke 31:2751–2766.
Kreikemeier, K.K., J.A. Unruh, and T.P. Eck. 1998. Factors affecting the occurrence of dark cutting beef and selected carcass traits in finished beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:388–395.
Kretchmar, D. H., M.R. Hathaway, R.J. Dayton, and W.R. Epley. 1990. Alterations in postmortem degradation of myofibrillar proteins in muscle of lambs fed a b-adrenergic agonist. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1760–1772.
Kristensen, L., M. Therkildsen, B. Riis, M.T. Sorensen, N. Oksbjerg, P.P. Purslow, and P. Ertbjerg. 2002. Dietary-induced changes of muscle growth rate in pigs: Effects on in vivo and postmortem muscle proteolysis and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2862–2871.
Krystallis, A., G. Chryssochoidis, and J. Scholderer. 2007. Consumer-perceived quality in ‘traditional’ food chains: The case of the Greek meat supply chain. Appetite 48:54–68.
Kuchida, K., M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 2001. Development of photographing equipment for the cross section of carcass and prediction of BMS number by using obtained image from that equipment. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. J. Anim. Sci. 72:224–231.
Kuchida, K., T. Kurihara, M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 1997. Development of an accurate method for measuring fat percentage on rib-eye area by computer image analysis. Anim. Sci. Tech. 68:853–859.
Kuchida, K., K. Konishi, M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 1998. Prediction of the crude fat contents in rib-eye muscle of beef using the fat area ratio calculated by computer image analysis. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. J. Anim. Sci. 69:655–658.
Kuchida, K., T. Osawa, T. Hori, H. Kotaka, and S. Maruyama. 2006. Evaluation and genetics of carcass cross section of beef carcass by computer image analysis. J. Anim. Genet.(Japanese). 34: 45–52.
Kuchida, K., S. Kono, K. Konishi, L.D. Van Vleck, M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 2000. Prediction of crude fat content of longissimus muscle of beef using the ratio of fat area calculated from computer image analysis: Comparison of regression equations for prediction using different input devices at different stations. J. Anim. Sci. 78:799–803.
Kukowski, A.C., R.J. Maddock, and D.M. Wulf. 2004. Evaluating consumer acceptability of various muscles from the beef chuck and rib. J. Anim. Sci. 82:521–525.
Kukowski, A.C., R.J. Maddock, D.M. Wulf, S.W. Fausti, and G.L. Taylor. 2005. Evaluating consumer acceptbaility and willingness to pay for various beef chuck msucles. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2605–2610.
Kwiatkowski, J.R., A.J. McAloon, F. Taylor, and D.B. Johnston. 2006. Modeling the process and costs of fuel ethanol production by the corn grinding process. Ind. Crops Prod. 23:288–296.
Lacetero, N, U. Bernabucci, D. Scalia, L. Basirico, P. Momera, and A. Nardone. 2006. Heat stress elicits different responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brown Swiss and Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89:4606-4612.
Lacourt, A., and P.V. Tarrant. 1985. Glycogen depletion pattern in myofibers of cattle during stress. Meat Sci. 15:85–100.
Lahucky, R., O. Palanska, J. Mojto, K. Zaujec, and J. Huba. 1998. Effect of preslaughter handling on muscle glycogen level and selected meat quality traits in beef. Meat Sci. 50:389–393.
Lahucky, R., I. Bahelka, U. Kuechenmeister, K. Vasickova, K. Nuernberg, K. Ender, and G. Nuernberg. 2007. Effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin D3 and E on quality characteristics of pigs and longissimus muscle antioxidative capacity. Meat Sci. 77:264–268.
Laine, E. S., J.M. Scheftel, D.J. Boxrud, K.J. Vought, R.N. Danilla, K.M. Elfering, and K.E. Smith. 2005. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with nonintact blade-tenderized frozen steaks sold by door-to-door vendors. J.Food Prot. 68:1198–1202.
Lake, R.P., R.L. Hildebrand, D.C. Clanton, and L.E. Jones. 1974. Limited energy supplementation of yearling steers grazing irrigated pasture and subsequent feedyard performance. J. Anim. Sci. 39:827–833.
Lambert, H., S.J. Charette, A.F. Bernier, A. Guimond, J. Landry. 1999. HSP27 multimerization mediated by phosphorylation-sensitive intermolecular interactions at the amino terminus. J. Biol. Chem. 274:9378-9385.
Lametsch R, and E. Bendixen. 2001. Proteome analysis applied to meat science: characterizing post mortem changes in porcine muscle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:4531-4537.
Landy, P., J.L. Courthaudon, C. Dubois, and A. Voilley. 1996. Effect of interface in model food emulsions on the volatility of aroma compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:526–530.
Lanier, J.L., T. Grandin, R.D. Green, D. Avery, and K. McGee. 2000. The relationship between reaction to sudden, intermittent movements and sounds and temperament. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1467–1474.
Larick, D.K., and B.E. Turner. 1989. Infl uence of finishing diet on the phospholipid composition and fatty acid profile of individual phospholipids in lean muscle of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2282–2293.
Larick, D.K., H.B. Hedrick, M.E. Bailey, J.E. Williams, D.L. Hancock, G.B. Garner, and R.E. Morrow. 1987. Flavor constituents of beef as influenced by forage and grain feeding. J. Food Sci. 52:245–251.
Larraín, R., D. Schaefer, and J. Reed. 2008. Use of digital images to estimate CIE color coordinates of beef. Food Res. Intl. 41:380–385.
Larraín, R.E., DM. Schaefer,M.P. Richards, and J.D. Reed. 2008. Finishing steerswith diets based on corn, high-tannin sorghum or a mix of both: Color and lipid oxidation in beef. Meat Sci. 79:656–665.
Larzul, C., L. Lefaucheur, P. Ecolan, J. Gogue, A. Talmant, and P. Sellier. 1997. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for longissimus muscle fiber characteristics in relation to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in large white pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:3126–3137.
Laurent, G.J. 1987. Dynamic state of collagen: pathways of collagen degradation in vivo and their possible role in regulation of collagen mass. Amer. J. Physiol. 252:C1.
Laurent, G.J., M.P. Sparrow, P.C. Bates, and D.J. Millward. 1978. Turnover of muscle protein in the fowl. Collagen content and turnover in cardiac and skeletal muscles of the adult fowl and the changes during stretch-induced growth. Biochem. J. 176:419-427.
Laville, E., T. Sayd, C. Terlouw, S. Blinet, J. Pinguet, M. Fillaut, J. Glénisson, and P. Chérel. 2009a. Differences in pig muscle proteome according to HAL genotype: Implications for meat quality defects. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:4913–4923.
Law, H.M., S.P. Yang, A.M. Mullins, and M.M. Fielder. 1967. Effect of storage and cooking on qualities of loin and top round steak. J. Food Sci. 32:637-641.
Lawrence, J.D., and M.A. Ibarburu. 2007. Economic analysis of pharmaceutical technologies in modern beef production. Proc. NCCC-134 Conf. on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, Market Risk Manage. Chicago, IL. Available at http://www.farmdoc.uiuc.edu/nccc134. Accessed April 28, 2010.
Ledward, D.A. 1985. Post-slaughter influences on the formation of metmyoglobin in beef muscles. Meat Sci. 15:149–171.
Lee D.H., L.M. Steffen, and D.R. Jacobs. 2004. Association between serum glutamyl transferase and dietary factors: the Coronary Artery Risk Development inYoungAdults (CARDIA) Study.AmJ ClinNutr. 79:600–5.
Lee, H. J., S.C. Lee, Y.K. Oh, and I.K. Han. 2000. Effects of vitamins on the differentiation of preadipocytes from Hanwoo cattle adipose tissues. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:446–450.
Lee, M.R.F., A.L. Winters, N. Scollan, R.J. Dewhurst, M.K. Theodorou, and F.R. Minchin. 2004. Plant mediated lipolysis and proteolysis in red clover with different polyphenol oxidase activities. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 84:1639-1645.
Lee, M.S., J.K. Apple, J.W.S. Yancey, J.T. Sawyer, and Z.B. Johnson. 2008a. Influence of vacuum-aging period on bloom development of the beef gluteus medius from top sirloin butts. Meat Sci. 80:592–598.
Lee, M.S., J.K. Apple, J.W. Yancey, J.T. Sawyer, and Z.B. Johnson. 2008b. Influence of vacuum-aging period on bloom development of the beef gluteus medius from top sirloin butts. Meat Sci. 80:592–598.
Lee, S.H., Seung-Chang Kim, Han-Ha Chai, Soo-Hyun Cho, Hyeong-Cheol Kim, Dajeong Lim, Bong-Hwan Choi, Chang-Gwan Dang, Aditi Sharma, Cedric Gondro, Boh-Suk Yang, and Seong-Koo Hong. 2014. Mutations in calpastatin and μ-calpain are associated with meat tenderness, flavor and juiciness in Hanwoo (Korean cattle): Molecular modeling of the effects of substitutions in the calpastatin/μ-calpain complex Meat Sci. 96:1501–1508.
Lefaucheur L. 2010. A second look into fibre typing—relation to meat quality. Meat Sci. 84:257-70.
Legako, J.F., J.C. Brooks, T.G. O’Quinnc, T.D.J. Hagand, R. Polkinghorne e, L.J. Farmer, M.F. Miller. 2015. Consumer palatability scores and volatile beef flavor compounds of five USDA quality grades and four muscles. Meat Sci. 100:291–300.
Leheska, J.M., J.L. Montgomery, C.R. Krehbiel, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, M. Streeter, J.R. Blanton Jr., and M.F. Miller. 2009. Dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride. II. Carcass composition and meat palatability of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1384–1393.
Lehnert, S.A., A. Reverter K.A. Byrne, Y. Wang, G.S. Nattrass, N.J. Hudson, and P.L. Greenwood. 2007. Gene expression studies of developing bovine longissimus muscle from two different beef cattle breeds. BMC Develop. Bio. 7:95.
Leon, K., D. Mery, F. Pedreschi, and J. Leon. 2006. Colormeasurement in L*a*b* units from RGB digital images. Food Res. Intl. 39:1084–1091.
Lepetit, J. 2008. Collagen contribution to meat toughness: Theoretical aspects. Meat Sci. 80:960–967.
Lepetit, J., and J. Culioli. 1994 . Mechanical properties of meat. Meat Sci. 36,203-237.
Lepetit, J., A. Grajales, and R. Favier. 2000. Modelling the effect of sarcomere length on collagen thermal shortening in cooked meat: Consequence on meat toughness. Meat Sci. 54:239−250.
Lepper, B., A. N., E.P. Berg, A.J. Germolus, D.S., Buchanan, and P.T. Berg. 2014. Consumer evaluation of palatability characteristics of a beef value-added cut compared to common retail cuts. Meat Sci. 96:419–422.
Leupp, J.L., G.P. Lardy, M.L. Bauer, K.K. Karges, M.L. Gibson, J.S. Caton, and R.J. Maddock. 2009. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on growing and finishing steer intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and steak color and sensory attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 87:4118–4124.
Levéziel, H., J.F. Hocquette, J. Lepetit, C. Denoyelle, V. Dodelin, N. Payet, et al. 2006. Q204X myostatin mutation effects on carcass and meat quality traits in heterozygous Charolais young bulls. 52nd Int. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech. pp. 65−66. Dublin, Ireland
Lewis, G.J., P.P. Purslow, and A.E. Rice. 1991. The effect of conditioning on the strength of perimysial connective tissue dissected from cooked meat. Meat Sci. 30:1–12.
Lewis, R., G. Emmans, and G. Simm. 2002. Effects of index selection on the carcass composition of sheep given either ad libitum or controlled amounts of food. J. Anim. Sci. 75:185–195.
Leygonie, C., T.J. Britz, and L.C. Hoffman. 2012. Impact of freezing and thawing on the quality of meat: Review. Meat Sci. 91:93–98.
Li, C. B., G.H. Zhou, and X.L. Xu. 2010. Dynamical changes of beef intramuscular connective tissue and muscle fiber during heating and their effects on beef shear force. Food Bioproc. Tech. 3:521–527.
Li, C., N. Aldai, M. Vinsky, M.E. Dugan, and T.A. McAllister. 2012a. Association analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms in bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase and fatty acid synthase genes with fatty acid composition in commercial cross-bred beef steers. Anim. Genet. 43:93–97.
Li, C.B., J. Li, G.H. Zhou, R. Lametsch, P. Ertbjerg, D.A. Brüggemann, H.G. Huang, A.H. Karlsson, M. Hviid, and K. Lundström. 2012b. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1638–1649.
Li, H., V.F. Thompson, and D.E. Goll. 2004. Effects of autolysis on properties of [mu]- and m-calpain. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Molec. Cell Res. 1691:91–103.
Li, J., and P. Shatadal. 2001. Classification of tough and tender beef by image texture analysis. Meat Sci. 57:341-346.
Li, J., J. Tan, F.A. Martz, and H. Heymann. 1999. Image texture features as indicators of beef tenderness. Meat Sci. 53:17-22.
Li, L., Y. Zhu, X. Wang, Y. He, and B. Cao. 2014. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellowcattle. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechn. 5: 21.
Li, J., J. Tan, F.A. Martz, D.H. Lee, L.M. Steffen, and D.R. Jacobs. 2004. Association between serum glutamyl transferase and dietary factors: the Coronary Artery Risk Development inYoungAdults (CARDIA) Study.AmJ ClinNutr. 79:600–5.
Li, X., G. Lindahl, G. Zamaratskaia, and K. Lundstrom. 2012. Influence of vacuum skin packaging on color stability of beef longissimus lumborum compared with vacuum and high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging. Meat Sci. 92:604–609.
Li, X., .J. Babol,L. Wender, P. Bredie, B. Nielsen, J. Tománková, and K. Lundström. 2014. A comparative study of beef quality after aging longissimus muscle using a dry aging bag, traditional dry aging or vacuum package aging. Meat Sci. 97: 433–442.
Li, Y.F., and S.M. Liu. 2012. Reducing lipid peroxidation for improving color stability of beef and lamb: On-farm considerations. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:719–726.
Lieber, R.L., and J. Fridén. 1999. Mechanisms of muscle injury after eccentric contraction. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2:253–265.
Light, N.D., A.E. Champion, C. Voyle, and A.J. Bailey. 1985. The role of the epimysial, perimysial and endomysial collagen in determining texture in six bovine muscles. Meat Sci. 13:137-149.
Lin, K.C., H.R. Cross, and S.B. Smith. 1992. Esterification of fatty acids by bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Lipids 27:111–116.
Lindemann, B. 2001. Receptors and transduction in taste. Nature 413: 219-225.
Lindquist, S. 1986. The heat-shock response. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 55:1151-1191.
Lindquist, S. and E.A. Craig. 1988. The heat-shock proteins. Ann. Rev. of Gen. 22:631–677.
Lines, D.S., W.S. Pitchford, Z.A. Kruk, and C.D.K. Bottema. 2009. Limousin myostatin F94L variant affects semitendinosus tenderness. Meat Sci. 81:126−131.
Listrat, A., A. Levieux, and J. Lepetit. 2007. Muscle, age and sex effects on total pyridinoline cross-links content and beef tenderness. 53rd Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech. Beijing, China pp. 247–248.
Liu, G., and Y.L. Xiong. 2000. Electrophoretic pattern, thermal denaturation, and in vitro digestibility of oxidized myosin. J. Agr. and Food Chem. 48:624–630.
Liu, J.M., S.E. Hankinson, M.J. Stampfer, N. Rifai, W.C. Willett, J. Ma. 2003. Body iron stores and their determinants in healthy postmenopausal US women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.78:1160–1167.
Liu, Q., M.C. Lanari, and D.M. Schaefer. 1995. A review of dietary vitamin-E supplementation for improvement of beef quality. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3131–3140.
Liu, Q., K.K. Scheller, S.C. Arp, D.M. Schaefer, and M. Frigg. 1996a. Color coordinates for assessment of dietary vitamin E effects on beef color stability. J. Anim. Sci. 74:106–113.
Liu, Q., K.K. Scheller, S.C. Arp, D.M. Schaefer, and S.N. Williams. 1996b. Titration of fresh meat color stability andmalondialdehyde development with Holstein steers fed vitamin E-supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 74:117–126.
Liu, Y., B.G. Lyon, W.R. Windham, C.E. Realini, T.D.D. Pringle, and S. Duckett. 2003. Prediction of color, texture, and sensory characteristics of beef steaks by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. A feasibility study. Meat Sci. 65:1107–1115.
Locker, R.H. 1960. Degree of muscular contraction as a factor in the tenderness of beef. Food Res. 25:304–307.
Locker, R.H., and C.J. Hagyard. 1963. A cold shortening effect in beef muscle. J. Sci. Food 14:787–793.
Loizzo, M.R., R. Tundis, F. Menichini,and G. Duthie. 2015. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health. Intl. J. Food Sci. and Nutr. 66:50–57.
Lomas, L.W., J.L. Moyer, and G.A. Milliken. 2009. Effect of energy supplementation of stocker cattle grazing smooth bromegrass pastures on grazing and subsequent fi nishing performance and carcass traits. Prof. Anim. Sci. 25:65–73.
Lomiwes, D., M.M. Farouk, D.A. Frost, P.M. Dobbie, and O.A. Young. 2011. Small heat shock proteins and tenderness in intermediate pHu beef. Proc. 57th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. and Tech. (Ghent).
Lomiwes, D., M.M. Farouk, D.A. Frost, P.M. Dobbie, and O.A. Young. 2013a. Small heat shock proteins and toughness in intermediate pHu beef. Meat Sci. 95:472–479.
Lomiwes, D., S.M. Hurst, P. Dobbie, D.A. Frost, R.D. Hurst, O.A. Young, M.M. Farouk. 2014. The protection of bovine skeletal myofibrils from proteolytic damage post mortem by small heat shock proteins. Meat Sci. 97:548–557.
Lonergan, S.M., E. Huff-Lonergan, B.R. Wiegand, and L.A. Kriese-Anderson. 2001. Postmortem proteolysis and tenderization of top loin steaks from Brangus cattle. J. Muscle Foods 12:121–136.
Lonergan, S.M., C.W. Ernst, M.D. Bishop, C.R. Calkins, and M. Koohmaraie. 1995. Relationship of restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) at the bovine calpastatin activity and meat tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3608-3612.
Long, C.R. 1980. Crossbreeding for beef production: Experimental results. J. Anim. Sci. 51: 1197–1223.
Long, N.M., C.B. Tousley, K.R. Underwood, S.I. Paisley, W.J. Means, B.W. Hess, M. Du, and S.P. Ford. 2012. Effects of early- to mid-gestational undernutrition with or without protein supplementation on offspring growth, carcass characteristics, and adipocyte size in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 90:197–206.
López-Campos, Ó., J.L. Aalhus, N. Prietoc, I. Larsen, M. Juárez, J.A. Basarab. 2015. Chronological vs. physiological age indicators in beef cattle: Effects of the production system and growth promotants Meat Sci. 99:146.
Lopez-Huertas, E. 2010. Health effects of oleic acid and long chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) enriched milks. A review of intervention studies. Pharmacolog. Res. 61:200–207.
Lorente, M., C. Perez, C. Sanchez, M. Donohoe, Y. Shi, and M. Vidal. 2006. Homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton of YY1 mutant mice and genetic interaction with the polycomb group gene Ring1/Ring1A. Mech. Develop. 123: 312–320.
Lorenzen, C.L., R.K. Miller, J.F. Taylor, T.R. Neely, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, M.J. Buyck, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 2003. Beef customer satisfaction: trained sensory panel ratings and Warner-Bratzler shear force values. J. Anim. Sci. 81:143-149.
Lorenzen, C. L., T. R. Neely, R. K. Miller, J. D. Tatum, J. W. Wise, J. F. Taylor, M. J. Buyck, J. O. Reagan, and J. W. Savell. 1999. Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top loin steak. J. Anim. Sci. 77:637–644.
Lorenzen, C.L., T.R. Neely, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J. Buyk, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell.1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Trained sensory panel ratings and Warner-Bratzler shear force values. J. Anim. Sci. 81:143-149.
Lorenzen, C. L., V. K. Davuluri, K. Adhikari, and I. U. Grün. 2005. Effect of end-point temperature and degree of doneness on sensory and instrumental flavor profile of beef steaks. J. Food Sci. 70:S113–S118.
Lorenzen, C.L., V.K. Davuluri, K. Adhikari, and I.U. Grün. 2005. Effect of end point temperature and degree of doneness on sensory and instrumental flavor profile of beefsteaks. J. Food Sci. 70:113–118.
Lorenzen, C.L., D.S. Hale, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savell, K.E. Belk, T.L. Frederick, et. al. 1993. National Beef quality Audit: Survey of producer-related defects and carcass quality and quantity attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1495–1502.
Lorenzen, C.L., M. Koohmaraie, S.D. Shackelford, F. Jahoor, H.C. Freetly, T.L. Wheeler, J.W. Savell, and M.L. Fiorotto. 2000. Protein kinetics in callipyge lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:78–87.
Lorenzo, J.M., and R. Domínguez. 2014. Cooking losses, lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat as affected by cooking procedure. Flavour Fragrance J. 29: 240–248.
Lorenzo, J.M., MV. Sarriés, and D. Franco. 2013. Sex effect on meat quality and carcass traits of foal slaughtered at 15 months of age. Anim. 7:1199–1207.
Lough, D.S., M.B. Solomon, T.S. Rumsey, S. Kahl, and L.L. Slyter. 1993. Effects of highforage diets with added palm oil on performance, plasma lipids, and carcass characteristics of ram and ewe lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1171–1176.
Love, J.D. and A.M. Pearson. 1974. Metmyoglobin and nonheme iron as prooxidants in cooked meat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 22:1032-1034.
Lucherk, L. W., T. G. O’Quinn, J. F. Legako, R. J. Rathmann, J. C. Brooks, and M. F. Miller. 2016. Consumer and trained panel evaluation of beef strip steaks of varying marbling and enhancement levels cooked to three degrees of doneness. Meat Sci. 122:145–154.
Luchsinger, S.E., D.H. Kropf, E. Chambers, IV, C.M. Garcia Zepeda, M.C. Hunt, S.L. Stroda, et al. 1997. Sensory analysis of irradiated ground beef patties and whole muscle beef. J. Sensory Stud. 12:105–126.
Luckett, R.L., T.D. Bidner, E.A. Icaza, and J.W. Turner. 1975. Tenderness studies in straightbred and crossbred steers. J. Anim. Sci. 40:468-475.
Lund,M.N., R. Lametsch, M.S. Hviid, O.N. Jensen, and L.H. Skibsted. 2007. High-oxygen packaging atmosphere influences protein oxidation and tenderness of porcine longissimus dorsi during chill storage. Meat Sci. 77:295–303.
Luque, L.D., B.J. Johnson, J.N. Martin, M.F. Miller, J.M. Hodgen, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, M.N. Streeter, D.A. Yates, D.M. Allen, and J.C. Brooks. 2011. Zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation has no effect on the shelf life of ground beef. J. Anim. Sci. 89:817–825.
Lusk, J.L., J.A. Fox, T.C. Schroeder, J. Mintert, and M. Koohmaraie. 2001. In-store valuation of steak tenderness. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 83:539–550.
Lynch, M.P., J.P. Kerry, D.J. Buckley, C. Faustman, and P.A. Morrissey. 1999. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on the color and lipid stability of fresh, frozen and vacuum-packaged beef. Meat Sci. 52:95–99.
Lynch, M.P., J.P. Kerry, M.G. O’Sullivan, J.B.P. Lawlor, D.J. Buckley, and P.A. Morrissey. 2000. Distribution of α-tocopherol in beef muscles following dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Meat Sci. 56:211-214.
Ma, D.K., J.U. Guo, G.L. Ming, and H. Song. 2009a. DNA excision repair proteins and Gadd45 as molecular players for active DNA demethylation. Cell Cycle 8:1526–1531.
Ma, H.J., D.A. Ledward, A.I. Zamri, R.A. Frazier, and G.H. Zhou. 2009b. Effects of high pressure/thermal treatment on lipid oxidation in beef and chicken muscle. Food Chem. 104:1575–1579.
MacDougald, O.A., and S. Mandrup. 2002. Adipogenesis: Forces that tip the acales. Trends Endo. Metab. 13:5–11.
Mach, N., A. Bach, A. Velarde, and M. Devant. 2008. Association between animal, transportation, slaughterhouse practices, and meat pH in beef. Meat Sci. 78:232–238.
Mach, N., A. Bach, C.E. Realini, M. Fonti Furnols, A. Velarde, and M. Devant. 2009. Burdizzo pre-pubertal castration effects on performance, behavior, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. Meat Sci. 81:329–334.
Machiels, D., L. Istasse, and S.M. van Ruth. 2004. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of beef meat originating from differently fed Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Food Chem. 86: 377.
MacLeod, G. 1994. The flavour of beef. In F. Shahidi (Ed.), Flavour ofmeat and meat products, pp. 4–37. Glasgow: Blackie Acad. Profess.
Maddock Carlin, K.R., V.L. Anderson, D.M. Larson, B.R. Ilse , R.J. Maddock, M.L. Bauer, and G.P. Lardy. 2013. Effects of increasing field pea (Pisum sativum) level in high concentrate diets on meat tenderness and sensory taste panel attributes in finishing steers and heifers. Prof. Anim. Sci. 29:33–38.
Maddock, K.R., E. Huff-Lonergan, L.J. Rowe, and S.M. Lonergan. 2005. Effect of pH and ionic strength on mu- and m-calpain inhibition by calpastatin. J. Anim. Sci. 83:1370–1376.
Madhavi, D.L., and C.E. Carpenter. 1993. Aging and processing affect color,metmyoglobin reductase and oxygen consumption of beef muscles. J. Food Sci. 58:939–942.
Madruga, M.S. 2004. Qualidade quimicia, sensorial e aromatic da carne caprina e ovina: Milos e verdades, pp 215-234 In Encontro Nacional para o Desenvolvimento da Especie Caprina. Anais 8. Universidade Estadual Paulista Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Maga, J.A. 1987. Organoleptic properties of umami substances. In Y. Kawamura, and M.R. Kare (Eds.), Umami: A basic taste, pp. 255–269. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Magolski, J.D., V.L. Anderson, T.D. Maddock, B.L. Ilse, A.N. Lepper, and K.R. Carlin. 2008. Effect of dietary field pea inclusion at prescribed times from weaning to slaughter on performance, carcass quality, and palatability of beef. Proc. Recip. Meat Conf. 61:35.
Magolski, J.D., D.S. Buchanan, K.R. Maddock-Carlin, V.L. Anderson, D.J. Newman, and E.P. Berginfluencing. 2013. Relationship between commercially available DNA analysis and phenotypic observations on beef quality and tenderness. Meat Sci. 95:480–485
Mahmood, S., J.A. Basarab, W.T. Dixon, and H.L. Bruce. 2016a. Can potential for dark cutting be predicted by phenotype? Relationship between sex, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting beef. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 96:19–31.
Mahmood, S., J.A. Basara, W.T. Dixon, and H.L. Bruce. 2016b. Relationship between phenotype, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting in heifers. Meat Sci. 121:261–271.
Mailhos, C., M.K. Howard, and D.S. Latchman. 1993. Heat shock protects neuronal cells from programmed cell death by apoptosis. Neurosci. 55:621–627.
Malau-Aduli, A. E. O., B. D. Siebert, C. D. K. Bottema, and W. S. A. Pitchford. 1997. Comparison of the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols in adipose tissue from Limousin and Jersey cattle. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 48:715–722.
Maltin, C., D. Balcerzak, R. Tilley, and M. Delday. 2003. Determinants of meat quality: Tenderness. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 62:337–347.
Maltin, C.A., K.D. Sinclair, P.D. Warriss, C.M. Grant, A.D. Porter, and M.I. Delday. 1998. The effects of age at slaughter, genotype and finishing system on the biochemical properties, muscle fiber type characteristics and eating quality of bull beef from suckled calves. Anim. Sci. 66:341–348.
Mancini, R.A., and M.C. Hunt. 2005. Current research in meat color. Meat Sci. 71:100–121.
Mancini, R.A., R. Ramanathan, S.P. Suman, M.K. Konda, P. Joseph, G. Dady, B.M. Naveena, and I. López-López. 2010a. Effects of lactate and modified atmospheric packaging on premature browning in cooked ground beef patties. Meat Sci. 85:339–346.
Mancini, R.A., S.P. Suman, M.K. Konda, R. Ramanathan, P. Joseph, and C.M. Beach. 2010b. Mass spectrometric investigations on lactate adduction to equine myoglobin. Meat Sci. 85:363–367.
Mandell, I.B., J.G. Buchanan-Smith, and C.P. Campbell. 1998. Effects of forage vs grain feeding on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and beef quality in Limousin cross steers when time on feed is controlled. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2619.
Manwell, C., and C.M.A. Baker. 1980. Chemical classification of cattle. 2. Phylogenetic tree and specific status of the Zebu. Anim. Blood Groups Biochem. Gene. 11:151–162.
Marais, G. L. 2007. Evaluation of genetic and physiological parameters associated with meat tenderness in South African Feedyard cattle. M.Sc thesis, Departement of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Margueron, R., and D. Reinberg. 2011. The polycomb complex PRC2 and its mark in life. Nature 469:343–349.
Marino, R., M. Albenzio, A. della Malva, M. Caroprese, A. Santillo, A. Sevi. 2014. Changes in meat quality traits and sarcoplasmic proteins during aging in three different cattle breeds. Meat Sci. 98:178–186.
Marsh, B.B., T.P. Ringkob, R.L. Russell, D.R. Swartz, and L.A. Pagel. 1987. Effects of early-postmortem glycolytic rate on beef tenderness. Meat Sci. 21:241−248.
Marsh, B.B. 1977. The nature of tenderness. Proc. Recip. Meat Conf. 30:69–74.
Marsh, B. B., and N.G. Leet. 1966. Studies on meat tenderness. III. The effects of cold shortening on tenderness. J. Food Sci. 31:1122−1147.
Marsh, B.B., P.R. Woodhams, and N.G. Leet. 1968. Studies in meat tenderness. 5. The effect on tenderness of carcass cooling and frewezing before the completion of rigor motis. J. Food Sci. 33:12.
Marshall, D.M. 1999. The genetics of meat quality. In: R. Fries and A. Ruvinsky (Eds.), The genetics of cattle, pp. 605−636. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
Marti, S., C.E. Realini, A. Bach, M. Pérez-Juan, and M. Devant. 2011. Effect of vitamin A restriction on performance and meat quality in finishing Holstein bulls and steers. Meat Sci. 89:412–418.
Marti, S., C.E. Realini, A. Bach, M. Pérez-Juan, and M. Devant. 2013. Effect of castration and slaughter age on performance, carcass, and meat quality traits of Holstein calves fed a high-concentrate diet. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1129–1140.
Martin, K. M., G.E. Gardner, J.M. Thompson, and D.L. Hopkins. 2006. Nutritional impact on muscle glycogen metabolism in lambs selected for muscling. Int. J. Sheep Wool Sci. 54:233−234.
Martineau, R., H.V. Petit, C. Benchaar, H. Lapierre, D.R. Ouellet, D. Pellerin, et al. 2008. Effects of lasalocid or monensin on in situ biohydrogenation of flaxseed and sunflower seed unsaturated fatty acids. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 88:335–339.
Martino, M.N., L. Otero, P.D. Sanz, and N.E. Zaritzky. 1998. Size and location of ice crystals in pork frozen by high-pressure-assisted freezing as compared to classical methods. Meat Sci. 50:303–313.
Maruri, J.L., and D.K. Larick. 1992. Volatile concentration and flavor of beef as influenced by diet. J. Food Sci. 57:1275–1281.
Maruyama, K., M.L. Sunde, and R.W. Swick. 1978. Growth and muscle protein turnover in the chick. Biochem. 716:573–582.
Mateescu, R.G., D.J. Garrick, A.J. Garmyn, D.L. Van Overbeke, G.G. Mafi, and J.M. Reecy. 2015. Genetic parameters for sensory traits in longissimus muscle and their associations with tenderness, marbling score, and intramuscular fat in Angus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 93:21–27.
Mateo-Oyague, J., and M.L. Perez-Chabela. 2004. Frozen meat handbook of frozen foods. CRC Press.
Matsuishi, M., J. Kume, Y. Itou, M. Takahashi, M. Arai, H. Nakatomi, and K. Watanabe. 2004. Aroma compounds of Wagyu beefg and imported beef. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho 75:409-415.
Matsuishi, M., M. Fujimori, and A. Okitani. 2001. Wagyu beef aroma in Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle) beef preferred by the Japanese over imported beef. J. Anim. Sci. 72:498–504.
Maughan, C., R. Tansawat, D. Cornforth, R. Ward, and S. Martini. 2012. Development of a beef flavor lexicon and its application to compare the flavor profile and consumer acceptance of rib steaks from grass- or grain-fed cattle. Meat Sci. 90:116–121.
May, S.G., H.G. Dolezal, D.R. Gill, F.K. Ray, and D.S. Buchanan. 1992. Effects of days fed, carcass grade traits, and subcutaneous fat removal on post-mortem muscle characteristics and beef palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:444–453.
Mazzei, G.J., and J.F. Kuo. 1984. Phosphorylation of skeletal-muscle troponin I and troponin by phospholipid-sensitive Ca2+-dependent protein kinase and its inhibition by troponin C and tropomyosin. J. Biochem. 218:361-369.
McArdle, A., A. Vasilaki, and M. Jackson. 2002. Exercise and skeletal muscle aging: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Aging Res. Rev. 1:79–93.
McBee, J.L., Jr.,and J.A. Wiles. 1967. Influence ofmarbling and carcass grade on the physical and chemical characteristics of beef. J. Anim. Sci. 26:701−704.
McBride, T.M., S.A. Hogan, and J.P. Kerry. 2007. Comparative addition of rosemary extract and additives on sensory and antioxidant properties of retail packaged beef. Intl. J. Food Sci. Tech. 42:1201–1207.
McCabe, M.T.,H.M. Ott, G. Ganji, S. Korenchuk, C. Thompson, G.S. Van Aller, . C.L. Creasy. 2012. EZH2 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for lymphoma with EZH2-activating mutations. Nat. 492:108–112.
McCaughey,W.P., and R.L. Clipef. 1996. Carcass and organoleptic characteristics of meat from steers grazed on alfalfa/grass pastures and finished on grain. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 76:149–152.
McCormick, R.J. 1989. The influence of nutrition on collagen metabolism and stability. Recip. Meat Conf. Proc. 42:137-148.
McCormick, R.J. 1994. The flexibility of the collagen compartment of muscle. Meat Sci. 36:79−91.
McCormick, R.J. 1999. Extracellular modifications to muscle collagen: implications for meat quality. Poultry Sci. 78:785–791.
McCrae, S.E., C.G. Seccombe, B.B. Marsh, and W.A. Carse. 1971. Studies in meat tenderness. 9. Tenderness of various lamb muscles in relation to their skeletal restraint and delay before freezing. J. Food Sci. 36:566–570.
McCurdy, M.P., C.R. Krehbiel, G.W. Horn, P.A. Lancaster, and J.J. Wagner. 2010a. Effects of winter growing program on visceral organ mass, composition, and oxygen consumption of beef steers during growing and fi nishing. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1554–1563.
McCurdy, M.P., G.W. Horn, J.J. Wagner, P.A. Lancaster, and C.R. Krehbiel. 2010b. Effects of winter growing programs on subsequent feedyard performance, carcass characteristics, body composition, and energy requirements of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1564–1576.
McGilchrist, P., C.L. Alston, G.E. Gardner, K.L. Thomson, and D.W. Pethick. 2012. Beef carcasses with larger eye muscle areas, lower ossification scores and improved nutrition have a lower incidence of dark cutting. Meat Sci. 92:474–480.
McKay, M.E., P.G. Gursansky,P.G. Allingham, and G.S. Harper. 2001. Macroscopic structural effects of breed on intramuscular connective tissue in cattle. Proceed. Matrix Bio. Soc. Australia New Zealand, 5 Symp.12.
McKeith, F.K., D.L. De Vol, R.S. Miles, P.J. Bechtel, and T.C. Carr. 1985. Chemical and sensory properties of thirteen major beef muscles. J. Food Sci. 50:869–872.
McKeith, R.O., A. King, A.L. Grayson, S.D. Shackelford, K.B. Gehring, J.W. Savell, T.L. Wheeler. 2016. Mitochondrial abundance and efficiency contribute to lean color of dark cutting beef. Meat Sci. 116:165–173.
McKeith, R. O., G. D. Gray, D. S. Hale, C. R. Kerth, D. B. Griffin, J.W. Savell, C. R. Raines, K. E. Belk, D. R. Woerner, J. D. Tatum, J. L. Igo, D. L. VanOverbeke, G. G. Mafi, T. E. Lawrence, R. J. Delmore, L. M. Christensen, S. D. Shackelford, D. A. King, T. L. Wheeler, L. R. Meadows, and M. E. O’Connor. 2012. National Beef Quality Audit – 2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. J. Anim. Sci. 90:5135–5142. doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5477.
McKenna, D. R., P.D. Mies, B.E. Baird, K.D. Pfeiffer, J.W. Ellebracht, and J.W. Savell. 2005. Biochemical and physical factors affecting discoloration characteristics of 19 bovine muscles. Meat Sci. 70, 665–682.
McKenna, D.R., C.L. Lorenzen, K.D. Pollok, W.W. Morgan, W.L. Mies, J.J. Harris, R. Murphy, M. McAdams, D.S. Hale, and J.W. Savell. 2004. Interrelationships of breed type, USDA quality grade, cooking method, and degree of doneness on consumer evaluations of beef in Dallas and San Antonio, Texas, USA. Meat Sci. 66:399–406.
McKillip, K. V., A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, J. A. Unruh, E. A. E. Boyle, and T. G. O’Quinn. 2017a. Repeatability and accuracy of the Pressed Juice Percentage method at sorting steaks into juiciness categories. Meat Muscle Biol. 1:242–252.
McKillip, K. V., A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, J. A. Unruh, E. A. E. Boyle, and T. G. O’Quinn. 2017b. Sensory evaluation of enhanced beef strip loin steaks cooked to 3 degrees of doneness. Meat Muscle Biol. 1:227–241.
McMillin, K. W. 2008. Where is MAP going? A review and future potential of modified atmosphere packaging for meat. Meat Sci. 80:43–65.
McPhee, M.J., J.W. Oltjen, J.G. Fadel, D. Perry, and R. D. Sainz. 2008. Development and evaluation of empirical equations to interconvert between twelfth-rib fat and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat respective fat weights and to predict initial conditions of fat deposition models for beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1984–1995.
McPherron, A.C., and S.J. Lee. 1997. Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94:12457–12461.
McPherron, A.C., A.M. Lawler, and S.J. Lee. 1997. Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-B(beta) superfamily member. Nat. 387:83–90.
McVeigh, J. M., P.V. Tarrant, and M.G. Harrington. 1982. Behavioral stress and skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism in young bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 54:790–795.
Mehaffey, J.M., J.C. Brooks, R.J. Rathmann, E.M. Alsup, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, M.N. Streeter, D.A. Yates, B.J. Johnson, and M.F. Miller. 2009. Effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle on consumer palatability ratings. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3712–3721.
Meinert, L., A. Schafer, C. Bjergegaard, M.D. Aaslyng, and W.L.P. Bredie. 2009. Comparison of glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, ribose, and mannose as flavour precursors in pork: The effect of monosaccharide addition on flavour generation. Meat Sci. 81:419–425.
Meissner, A., T.S. Mikkelsen, H. Gu, M. Wernig, J. Hanna, A. Sivachenko, E.S. Lander. 2008. Genome-scale DNA methylation maps of pluripotent and differentiated cells. Nat. 454:766–770.
Mello, A.S., C.R. Calkins, B.E. Jenschke, T.P. Carr, M.E.R. Dugan, and G.E. Erickson. 2012. Beef quality of calf-fed steers finished on varying levels of corn-based wet distillers grains plus solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4625–4633.
Melton, S.L. 1983. Effect of forage feeding on beef flavor. Food Tech. 37: 239-248.
Melton, S.L. 1990. Effects of feeds on flavor of red meat: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 68:4421–4435.
Melton, S.L., M. Amiri, G.W. Davis, and W.R. Backus. 1982a. Flavor and chemical characteristics of ground beef from grass-, forage-grain-, and grain-finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 55:77–87.
Melton, S.L., J.M. Black, G.W. Davis, and W.R. Backus. 1982b. Flavor and selected chemical characteristics of ground beef from steers backgrounded on pasture and fed corn up to 140 days. J. Food Sci. 47: 699-704.
Menesatti, P., A. Zanella, S. D’Andrea, C. Costa, G. Paglia, and F. Pallottino. 2009. Supervised multivariate analysis of hyper-spectral NIR images to evaluate the starch index of apples. Food Bioproc. Tech. 2:308–314.
Menissier, F. 1982a. General survey of the effect of double muscling on cattle performance. J.W.B. King and F. Menissier (eds). In: Muscle Hypertrophy of Genetic Origin and Its Use to Improve Beef Production, pp 23–53 Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Menissier, F. 1982b. Present state of knowledge about the genetic determination of muscular hypertrophy or the double muscled trait in cattle. J.W.B. King and F. Menissier, (eds). In: Muscle Hypertrophy of Genetic Origin and Its Use to Improve Beef Production, pp. 387–428 Martinus Nijhoff Plubishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Mercier, Y., P. Gatellier, and M. Renerre. 2004. Lipid and protein oxidation in vitro, and antioxidant potential in meat from Charolais cows finished on pasture or mixed diet. Meat Sci. 66:467-473.
Merkel, R.A., and A.M. Pearson. 1975. Slow chilling could produce tender beef from lean carcasses. Meat Ind. 21: 27.
Meyer, E.H.H. 1984. Chromosomal and biochemical genetic markers of cattle breeds in Southern Africa. In: Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Sheep and Beef Cattle Breeding, pp. 328-339, Pretoria, South Africa.
Micol, D., M.P. Oury, B. Picard, J.F. Hocquette, M. Briand, R. Dumont, D. Egal, R. Jailler, H. Dubroeucq, and J. Agabriel. 2009. Effect of age at castration on animal performance, muscle characteristics and meat quality traits in 26-month-old Charolais steers. Lives. Sci. 120:116–126.
Miguel, G.Z., M.H. Faria, R.O. Roca, C.T. Santos, S.P. Suman, A.B.G. Faitarone, N.L.C. Delbem, L.V.C. Girao, J.M. Homem, .E.K. Barbosa, L.S. Su, F.D. Resende, G.R. Siqueira, A.D. Moreira, and T.V. Savian. 2014. Immunocastration improves carcass traits and beef color attributes in Nellore and Nellore × Aberdeen Angus crossbred animals finished in feedyard. Meat Science, 96, 884–891.
Mikami, M., M. Nagao, M. Sekikawa, and H. Miura. 1995. Changes in peptide and free amino acid contents of different bovine muscle homogenate during storage. Japanese Anim. Sci.Techn. 66:630–638.
Mikkelsen, T.S., M. Ku, D.B. Jaffe, B. Issac, E. Lieberman, G. Giannoukos, .et.al. 2007. Genome-wide maps of chromatin state in pluripotent and lineage-committed cells. Nat. 448:553–560.
Miller, M. F., L.C. Rockwell, D.K. Lunt, and G.E. Carstens. 1996. Determination of the flavor attributes of cooked beef from crossbred Angus steers fed corn or barley based diets. Meat Sci. 44:235-243.
Miller, M.F., M.F. Carr, C.B. Ramsey, K.L. Crocket, and L.C. Hoover. 2001. Consumer thresholds for establishing the value of beef tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 79:3062-3068.
Miller, M. F., C.R. Kerth, J.W. Wise, J.L. Lansdell, J.E. Stowell, and C.B. Ramsey. 1997. Slaughter plant location, USDA quality grade, external fat thickness, and aging time effects on sensory characteristics of beef loin strip steak. J. Anim. Sci. 75:662-667.
Miller, M.F., D.K. Garcia, M.E. Coleman, P.A. Ekeren, D.K. Lunt, K.A. Wagner, M. Procknor, T.H. Welsh Jr., and S.B. Smith. 1988. Adipose tissue, longissimus muscle and anterior pituitary growth and function in clenbuterol-fed heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 66:12–20.
Miller, R.K. 2001. Beef flavor: a white paper. National Cattlemens’ Beef Association. Centennial, CO.
Miller, R.K., J.D. Tatum, H.R. Cross, R.A. Bowling, and R.P. Clayton. 1983. Effects of carcass maturity on collagen solubility and palatability of beef from grain-finished steers. J. Food Sci. 48:484–486.
Miller, R.K., S.J. Moeller, R.N. Goodwin, C.L. Lorenzen, and J.W. Savell. 2000. Consistency in meat quality. Proceed. 46th Int’l Congress Meat Sci.Techn., pps. 566–580. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ICOMST Organizer.
Miranda-de la Lama, G.C., M. Villarroel, and G.A.María. 2014. Livestock transport from the perspective of the pre-slaughter logistic chain: a review. Meat Sci. 98:9–20.
Miranda-de la Lama, G.C., M. Pascual-Alonso, A. Guerrero, P. Alberti , S. Alierta, P. Sans , J.P. Gajan, M. Villarroel, A. Dalmau, A. Velarde, M.M. Campo, F. Galindo, M.P. Santolaria, C. Sañudo, G.A. María. 2013. Influence of social dominance on production, welfare and the quality of meat from beef bulls. Meat Sci. 94:432–437.
MLC. 1991. A Blueprint for improved consistent quality beef. Milton Keynes: Meat and Livestock Commission.
Młynek, K., and P. Guliński. 2007. The effect of growth rate and age at slaughter on dressing percentage and color, pH48 and microstructure of longissimus dorsi muscle in Black-and-White (BW) bulls vs commercial crossbreds of BW with beef breeds. Anim. Sci. 25:65–71.
Modzelewska-Kapituła, M. and Z. Nogalski. 2016. The influence of diet on collagen content and quality attributes of infraspinatus muscle from Holstein–Friesian young bulls. Meat Sci. 117:158–162.
Modzelewska-Kapituła, M., E. Dąbrowska, B. Jankowska, A. Kwiatkowska, and M. Cierach. 2012. The effect of muscle, cooking method and final internal temperature on quality parameters of beef roast. Meat Sci. 91:195–202.
Mohn, F., M. Weber, M. Rebhan, T.C. Roloff. J. Richter, M.B. Stadler, .et al. 2008. Lineage-specific polycomb targets and de novo DNA methylation define restriction and potential of neuronal progenitors. Molec. Cell 30:755–766.
Mohrhauser, D.A., A. R. Taylor, K. R. Underwood, R. H. Pritchard, A. E. Wertz-Lutz, and A. D. Blair. 2015a. The influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on beef offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality.
Mohrhauser, D.A., S.M. Lonergan, E. Huff-Lonergan, K.R. Underwood, and A.D. Weaver. 2014. Calpain-1 activity in bovine muscle is primarily influenced by temperature, not pH decline. J. Anim. Sci. 92:1261–1270.
Moloney, A.P., P. Allen, R.L. Joseph, P.V. Tarrant, and E.M. Convey. 1994. Carcass and meat quality of finishing Friesian steers the β-adrenergic agonist L-644,969. Meat Sci. 38:419–432.
Monson, F., C. Sanudo, and I. Sierra. 2005. Influence of breed and aging time on the sensory meat quality and consumer acceptability in intensively reared beef. Meat Sci. 71: 471-479.
Monteiro, A.C.G., J. SantosSilva, R.J.B. Bessa, D.R. Navas, and J.P.C. Lemos. 2006. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat of bulls and steers. Livestock Sci. 99:13-19.
Montgomery, J.L., F.C. Parrish, Jr., D.C. Beitz, R.L. Horst, E.J. Huff-Lonergan, and A.H. Trenkle. 2000. The use of vitamin D3 to improve beef tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2615–2621.
Montgomery, J.L., C.R. Krehbiel, J.J. Cranston, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, M.N.Streeter, D.T. Bechtol, E. Johnson, T. TerHume, and T.H. Montgomery. 2009. Dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride. I. Feedyard performance and carcass traits of steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1374-1383.
Montgomery, L.J., M.A. Carr, C.R. Kerth, G.G. Hilton, B.P. Price, M.L. Galyean, R.L. Horst, and M.F. Miller. 2002. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation level on the postmortem tenderization of beef from steers. J. Anim. Sci. 80:971–981.
Moody, W. G. 1983. Beef flavor, a review. Food Tech. 37: 227-232.
Moody, W.B., and R.G. Cassens. 1968. A quantitative and morphological study of bovine longissimus fat cells. J. Food Sci. 33:47–55.
Moore, C., P. Bass, M. Green, P. Chapman, M. Connor, L. Yates, .et al. 2010. Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2464–2475.
Moore, M.C., G.D. Gray, D.S. Hale, C.R. Kerth, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savell., .et. al. 2012. National Beef Quality Audit-2011. In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 90:5143–5151.
Morgan, J.B. 1997. Implant programs effect on USDA beef carcass quality grade traits and meat tenderness. Page 147 in Proc. Oklahoma State Univ. Implant Symp. Stillwater.
Morgan, J.B., J.W. Savell, D.S. Hale, R.K. Miller, D.B. Griffin, H.R. Cross, et al. 1991. National Beef Tenderness Survey. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3274-3283.
Morris, C.A., N.G. Cullen, S.M. Hickey, P.M. Dobbie, B.A. Veenvliet, T.R. Manley, W.S. Pitchford, Z.A. Kruk, C.D.K. Bottema, and T. Wilson. 2006. Genotypic effects of calpain 1 and calpastatin on the tenderness of cooked M. longissimus dorsi steaks from Jersey × Limousin, Angus and Hereford-cross cattle. Anim. Gene. 37:411–414.
Morrissey, P.A., P.J.A. Sheehy, K. Galvin, and J.P. Kerry. 1998. Lipid stability in meat and meat products. Meat Sci. 49:73–86.
Morzel, M, C. Terlouw, C. Chambon, D. Micol, and B. Picard. 2008. Muscle proteome and meat eating qualities of Longissimus thoracis of “Blonde d’Aquitaine” young bulls: a central role of HSP27 isoforms. Meat Sci. 78:297-304.
Motoyama, M., K. Sasaki, and A. Watanabe. 2016. Wagyu and the factors contributing to its beef quality: A Japanese industry overview. Meat Sci. 120:10–18.
Mottram, D.S. 1985. The effect of cooking conditions on the formation of volatile heterocyclic compounds in pork. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:377–382.
Mottram, D.S. 1991. Meat. In: H. Maarse (Ed.), Volatile compounds in food and beverages, pp. 107–177. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Mottram, D.S. 1998. Flavour formation in meat and meat products: A review. Food Chem. 62:415–424.
Mottram, D.S., and R.A. Edwards. 1983. The role of triglycerides and phospholipids in the aroma of cooked beef. J. Sci. Food Agric. 34:517–522.
Mottram, D.S., and I.C.C. Nobrega. 2002. Formation of sulfur aroma compounds in reaction mixtures containing cysteine and three different forms of ribose. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:4080–4086.
Mottram, D.S., R.A. Edwards, and J.H.H. Macfie. 1982. A comparison of the flavour volatiles from cooked beef and pork meat systems. J. Sci. Food Agr. 33:934–944.
Mounier, N., and A.P. Arrigo. 2002. Actin cytoskeleton and small heat shock proteins: how do they interact? Cell Stress Chaperones 7:167–176.
Mounier, L., H. Dubroeucq, S. Andanson, and I. Veissier. 2006. Variations in meat pH of beef bulls in relation to conditions of transfer to slaughter and previous history of the animals. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1567–1576.
Moyen, C., S. Goudenege, S. Poussard, A.H. Sassi, J.J. Brustis, and P. Cottin. 2004. Involvement of micro-calpain (CAPN 1) in muscle cell differentiation. Intl. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 36:728–743.
Muela, E., C. Sañudo, M.M. Campo, I. Medel, and J.A. Beltrán. 2010. Effect of freezing method and frozen storage duration on instrumental quality of lamb throughout display. Meat Sci. 84:662–669.
Mueller, S.L., D.A. King, B.E. Baird, D.R. McKenna, W.N. Osburn, and J.W. Savell. 2006. In: Home consumer evaluations of individual muscles from beef rounds subjected to tenderization treatments. Meat Sci. 74:272–280.
Muhlhausler, B.S., J.A. Duffield, and J.C. McMillen. 2006. Increased maternal nutrition stimulates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), adiponectin and leptinmRNA expression in adipose tissue before birth. Endo.148:878−885.
Mullen, A.M., P.C. Stapleton, D. Corcoran, R.M. Hamill, and A. White. 2006. Understanding meat quality through the application of genomic and proteomic approaches. Meat Sci. 74:3–16.
Murgiano L, A. D’Alessandro, M.G. Egidi, A. Crisà, G. Prosperini, A.M. Timperio. et al. 2010. Proteomics and transcriptomics investigation on longissimus muscles in Large White and Casertana pig breeds. J. Proteome Res. 9:6450-6466.
Muroya, S., I. Nakajima, and K. Chikuni. 2003. Amino acid sequences of multiple fast and slow troponin T isoforms expressed in adult bovine skeletal muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1185-1192.
Murray, A.C. 1989. Factors affecting beef color at time of grading. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 69:347–355.
Narberhaus, F. 2002. α-Crystallin-type heat shock proteins: Socializingminichaperones in the context of a multichaperone network. Microbiol Molec. Biol. Rev. 66:64–93.
Nascimento, M.L., A.R.D.L. Souza, A.S. Chaves, A.S.M. Cesar, R.R. Tullio, S.R. Medeiros, G.B. Mourão, A.N. Rosa, G.L.D. Feijó, M.M. Alencar, D.P.D. Lanna. 2016. Feed efficiency indexes and their relationships with carcass, non-carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore steers. Meat Sci. 116:78–85.
Nassu, R. T., B. Uttaro, J.L. Aalhus, S. Zawadski, M. Juarez, and M.E.R. Dugan. 2012. Type of packaging affects the color stability of vitamin E enriched beef. Food Chemistry, 135, 1868–1872.
Nattrass, G.S., L.M. Café, B.L. McIntyre, G.E. Gardner, P. McGilchrist, D.L. Robinson, Y.H. Wang, D.W. Pethick, and P.L. Greenwood. 2014. A post-transcriptional mechanism regulates calpastatin expression in bovine skeletal muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 92:443–455.
Nebbioso, A., C. Dell’Aversana, A. Bugge, R. Sarno, S. Valente, D. Rotili, et. al. 2010. HDACs class II-selective inhibition alters nuclear receptor-dependent differentiation. J. Molec. Endo. 45:219–228.
Neely, T.R., C.L. Lorenzen, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J. Buyck, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 1998. Beef customer satisfaction: Role of cut, USDA quality grade, and city on in-home consumer ratings. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1027–1033.
Neely, T.R., C.L. Lorenzen, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J.Buyck, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top round steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 77:653-660.
Negueruela. A.I., C. Sañudo, M.P. Santolaria, and P. Albertī. 1992. Evolución del color de carne de vacuno durante su maduración. Proc. Ia Reunión Iberoamericana Öptica, Barcelona. Spain. pp. 559-560.
Nephawe, K.A., L.V. Cundiff, M.E. Dikeman, J.D. Crouse, and L.D. Van Vleck. 2004. Genetic relationships between sex specific traits in beef cattle: mature weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height and body condition score of cows, and carcass traits of their steer relatives. J. Anim. Sci. 82:647-653.
Nestorov, N., T. Tomov, and A. Krestev. 1970. A study on transport stress in cattle and conditions for its manifestation. Proc. 16th Mtng Europ. Meat Res. Workers 1:A24, Sofia, Bulgary.
Neufer, P.D., and I.J. Benjamin. 1996. Differential expression of alpha B-crystallin and Hsp27 in skeletalmuscle during continuous contractile activity. Relationship to myogenic regulatory factors. J. Bio. Chem. 271:24089–24095.
Ngapo, T.M., I.H. Babare, J. Reynolds, and R.F. Mawson. 1999a. Freezing and thawing rate effects on drip loss from samples of pork. Meat Sci. 53:149–158.
Ngapo, T.M., I.H. Babare, J. Reynolds, J., and R.F. Mawson. 1999b. Freezing rate and frozen storage effects on the ultrastructure of samples of pork. Meat Sci. 53:159–168.
Ngapo, T.M., P. Berge, J. Culioli, E. Dransfield, S. De Smet, and E. Claeys. 2002. Perimysial collagen crosslinking and meat tenderness in Belgian Blue doublemuscled cattle. Meat Sci. 61:91−102.
Ngo, S., X. Li, R. O’Neill, C. Bhoothpur, P. Gluckman, and A. Sheppard. 2014. Elevated Sadenosylhomocysteine alters adipocyte functionality with corresponding changes in gene expression and associated epigenetic marks. Diabetes 63:2273–2283.
Niehrs, C., and A. Schafer. 2012. Active DNA demethylation by Gadd45 and DNA repair. Trends in Cell Biol. 22:220–227.
Nielsen, A.R., and B.K. Pedersen. 2007. The biological roles of exercise-induced cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 32:833–839.
Nieto, G., P. Diaz, S. Banon, and M.D. Garrido. 2010. Effect on lamb meat quality of including thyme (Thymus zygis ssp gracilis) leaves in ewes’ diet. Meat Sci. 85:82–88.
Nieto, G., M. Estrada, M.J. Jordán, M.D. Garrido,and S. Bañón. 2011. Effects in ewe diet of rosemary by-product on lipid oxidation and the eating quality of cooked lamb under retail display conditions. Food Chem. 124:1423–1429.
Nishimura, T. 2010. The role of intramuscular connective tissue in meat texture. Anim. Sci. J. 81:21–27.
Nishimura, T. 2015. Role of extracellular matrix in development of skeletal muscle and postmortem aging of meat. Meat Sci. 109:48–55.
Nishimura, T., A. Hattori, and K. Takahashi. 1999. Structural changes in intramuscular connective tissue during the fattening of Japanese black cattle: Effect of marbling on beef tenderization. J. Anim. Sci. 77:93−104.
Nishimura, T., M.R. Rhue, A. Okitani, and H. Kato. 1988. Components contributing to the improvement of meat taste during storage. Agric. Biol. Chem. 52:2323–2330.
Nishimura, T., A. Okitani, M.R. Rhue, and H. Kato. 1990. Survey of neutral aminopeptidases in bovine, porcine, and chicken skeletal muscles. Agric. Biolog. Chem. 54:2769–2775.
Nishimura, T., A. Liu, A. Hattori, and K. Takahashi. 1998. Changes in mechanical strength of intramuscular connective tissue during postmortem aging of beef. J. Anim. Sci. 76:528–532.
Nishimura, T., S.H. Fang, J. Wakamatsu, and K. Takahashi. 2009. Relationships between physical and structural properties of intramuscular connective tissue and toughness of raw pork. Anim. Sci. J. 80:85–90.
Nishimura, T., K. Ojima, A. Liu, A. Hattori, A., and K. Takahashi. 1996. Structural changes in the intramuscular connective tissue during development of bovine semitendinosus muscle. Tissue Cell 28:527–536.
Nishinakagawa, H., M. Matsumoto, and M. Honda. 1991. A study on the time and route the introduction of cattle and horses into Japan, as examined from skeletal remains of archaeological sites. KAKEN data-base of Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, no. 01490018 (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/d/p/01490018/1990/6/en.en.html).
Nkrumah, J.D., D.H. Crews Jr., J.A. Basarab, M.A. Price, E.K. Okine, Z. Wang, C. Li, and S.S. Moore. 2007. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behaviour and temperament with performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2382–2390.
Nogi, T., T. Honda, F. Mukai, T. Okagaki, and K. Oyama. 2011. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of fatty acid compositions in longissimus muscle lipid with carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 89:615-621.
Norris, R.T., R.B. Richards, J.H. Creeper, T.F. Jubb, B. Madin, and J.W. Kerr. 2003. Cattle deaths during sea transport from Australia. Austral. Vet. J. 81:156–161.
Novakofski, J. 2004. Adipogenesis: Usefulness of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. J. Anim. Sci. 82:905–915.
Noy, N. 2013. The one-two punch: Retinoic acid suppresses obesity both by promoting energy expenditure and by inhibiting adipogenesis. Adipocytes 2:184–187.
NRC. 1996. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Nuernberg, K., G.Nuernberg, K. Ender, D. Dannenberger, W. Schabbel, S. Grumbach, W. Zupp, and H. Steinhart. 2005a. Effect of grass vs. concentrate feeding on the fatty acid profile of different fat depots in lambs. European J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 107:737–745.
Nuernberg, K., D. Dannenberger, G. Nuernberg, K. Ender, J. Voigt, N.D. Scollan, J.D. Wood, G.R. Nute, and R.I. Richardson. 2005b. Effect of a grass based and a concentrate feeding system on meat quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of longissmus muscle in different cattle breeds. Livestock Prod. Sci. 94: 137-147.
O’Connor, S.F., J.D. Tatum, D.M. Wulf, R.D. Green, and G.C. Smith. 1997. Genetic effects on beef tenderness of Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1822-1830.
O’Halloran, J.M., D.M. Ferguson, D. Perry, and A.E. Egan. 1998. Mechanism of tenderness improvement in tenderstretched beef carcasses. 44th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech., Barcelona Spain, 45:712–713.
O’Neill, H.A., E.C. Webb, L. Frylinck, and P.E. Strydom. 2006. The stress responsiveness of three different beef breed types and the effect on ultimate pH and meat color. In: Proceedings of the 52ndinternational congress of meat science and technology. pp. 181–182, Dublin, Ireland.
Obata, T., H. Takeda, M. Satoh, and Y. Wada. 1996. Progress in breeding techniques for effective beef cattle production in Japan. JARQ 30:203–211.
Oddy, V. H., G.S. Harper, P.L. Greenwood, and M.B. McDonagh. 2001. Nutritional and developmental effects on the intrinsic properties of muscles as they relate to the eating quality of beef. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 41:921–942.
Oesterreich, S., R. Benndorf, and H. Bielka. 1990. The expression of the growth-related 25 kDa protein (p25) of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is increased by hyperthermic treatment (heat shock). Biomedica Biochimica Acta 49:219–226.
O’Grady, M.N., F.J. Monahan, J. Bailey, P. Allen, D.J. Buckley, and M.G. Keane. 1998. Color-stabilising effect of muscle vitamin E in minced beef stored in high oxygen packs. Meat Sci. 50:73–80.
O’Grady, M.N., F.J. Monahan, R.M. Burke, and P. Allen. 2000. The effect of oxygen level and exogenous α-tocopherol on the oxidative stability of minced beef in modifiedatmosphere packs. Meat Sci. 55:39–45.
Ohlendieck K. 2010. Proteomics of skeletal muscle glycolysis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1804:2089-2101.
O’Keeffe, M., and D.E. Hood. 1982. Biochemical factors influencing metmyoglobin formation on beef from muscles of differing color stability. Meat Sci. 7:209–228.
Okumura, T., K. Saito, T. Nade, S. Misumi, Y. Masuda, H. Sakuma, .et. al. 2007. Effects of intramuscular fat on the sensory characteristics of M-longissimus dorsi in Japanese Black steers as judged by a trained analytical panel. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 20:577–581.
Oliete, B., J.A. Carballo, A. Varela, T. Moreno, L. Monserrat, and L. Sanchez. 2006. Effect of weaning status and storage time under vacuum upon physical characteristics of meat of the Rubia Gallega breed. Meat Sci. 73:102–108.
Oliete, B., T. Moreno, J.A. Carballo, A. Varela, L. Monserrat, and L. Sánchez. 2005. Influence of aging time on the quality of yearling calf meat under vacuum. European Food Res. Tech. 220:489–493.
Oliveira, M.A., S. P. Alves, J. Santos-Silva, R.J.B. Bessa. 2017. Effect of dietary starch level and its rumen degradability on lamb meat fatty acid composition. Meat Sci. 123:166–172.
Oltra, O.R. 2010. Strategies to optimize the eating quality of beef and lamb meat. Unpublished PhD, Queens University Belfast.
Oltra, O.R., L.J. Farmer, A.W. Gordon, B.W. Moss, J. Birnie, D.J. Devlin, E.L.C. Tolland, I.J. Tollerton, A.M. Beattie, J.T. Kennedy, and D. Farrell. 2015. Identification of sensory attributes, instrumental and chemical measurements important for consumer acceptability of grilled lamb Longissimus lumborum. Meat Sci. 100:97–109.
Omi Beef Production, Circulation Promotion Conference. 2013. About the Omi cow. http://www.oumiushi.com/english_index.html (Retrieve: 11 January, 2016)
Öneç, A., and A. Kaya. 2004. The effects of electrical stunning and percussive captive bolt stunning on meat quality of cattle processed by Turkish slaughter procedures. Meat Sci. 66:809–815.
O’Quinn, T.G. 2012. Identifying preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics. Ph.D. Dissertation. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University.
O’Quinn, T.G., J.C. Brooks, R.J. Polkinghorne, A.J. Garmyn, B.J. Johnson, J.D. Starkey, R.J. Rathmann, and M.F. Miller. 2012. Consumer assessment of beef strip loin steaks of varying fat levels. J. Anim. Sci. 90:626–634.
O’Rourke, B.A., J.A. Dennis, P.J. Healy, W.A. McKiernan, P.L. Greenwood, L.M. Cafe, et al. 2009. Quantitative analysis of performance, carcass and meat quality traits in cattle from two Australian beef herds in which a null myostatin alleles is segregating. Anim. Prod. Sci. 49:297−305.
O’Sullivan, A., K. O’Sullivan, K. Galvin, A.P. Moloney, D.J. Troy, and J.P. Kerry. 2004. Influence of concentrate composition and forage type on retail packaged beef quality. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2384–2391.
Ouali A., C.H. Herrera-Mendez, G. Coulis, S. Becila, A. Boudjellal, L. Aubry et al. 2006. Revisiting the conversion of muscle into meat and the underlying mechanisms. Meat Sci. 74:44-58.
Ouali, A. 1984 . Sensitivity to ionic strength of Mg–Ca-enhanced ATPase activity as an index of myofibrillar aging in beef. Meat Sci. 11:79−88.
Ouali, A. 1990. Meat tenderization: Possible causes and mechanisms. A Review. J. Muscle Foods 1:129–165.
Ouali, A. 1992. Proteolytic and physicochemical mechanisms involved in meat texture development. Biochimie 74:251–265.
Ouali, A., and A. Talmant. 1990. Calpains and calpastatin distribution in bovine, porcine, and ovine skeletal muscles. Meat Sci. 28:331–348.
Ouali, A., N. Garrel, A. Obled, C. Deval, C. Valin, and I.F. Penny. 1987. Comparative action of cathepsins D, B, H, L and of a new lysosomal cysteine proteinase on rabbit myofibrils. Meat Sci. 19:83–100.
Ouali, A., M. Gagaoua, Y. Boudida, S. Becila, A. Boudjellal, .C.H. Herrera-Mendez, and M.A. Sentandreu. 2013. Review Biomarkers of meat tenderness: Present knowledge and perspectives in regards to our current understanding of the mechanisms involved. Meat Sci. 95:854–870.
Ozawa, S., T. Mitsuhashi, M. Mitsumoto, S. Matsumoto, N. Itoh, and K. Itagaki. 2000. The characteristics of muscle fiber types of longissimus thoracis muscle and their influences on the quantity and quality of meat from Japanese Black steers. Meat Sci. 54:65–70.
Özlütürk, A., N. Tüzemen, M. Yanar, N. Esenbuga, E. Dursun. 2004. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams. Meat Sci. 67:463–470.
Page, B.T., E. Casas, M.P. Heaton, N.G. Cullen, D.L. Hyndman, C.A. Morris, et al. 2002. Evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1 for association with meat tenderness in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3077−3085.
Page, B.T., E. Casas, R.L. Quaas, R.M. Thallman, T.L. Wheeler, S.D. Shackelford, M. Koohmaraie, S.N. White, G.L. Bennett, J.W. Keele, M.E. Dikeman, and T.P.L. Smith. 2004. Association of markers in the bovine CAPN1 gene with meat tenderness in large crossbred populations that sample influential industry sires. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3474–3481.
Palmer, A.Z. 1963. Relation of age, breed, sex, and feeding practices on beef and pork tenderness. In: Proc. Meat Tenderness Symp., Campbell Soup Co., Camden N.J. p 161.
Palmer, S., and J.C. Kentish. 1994. The role of troponin C inmodulating the Ca2+ sensitivity of mammalian skinned cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers. J. Physiol. 480:45–60.
Park, B., Y.R. Chen, W.R. Hruschka, S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 1998. Near-infrared reflectance analysis for predicting beef longissimus tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2115–2120.
Park, B.Y., J.M. Lee, and I.H. Hwang. 2007. Effect of postmortem metabolic rate on meat color. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 20:598–604.
Parr, T., H.D. Molebeledi. K. Mareko, J.P. Ryan, K.M. Hemmings, D.M. Brown, J.M. Bramel. 2016. The impact of growth promoters on muscle growth and the potential consequences for meat quality. Meat Sci. 120:93–99.
Parrish, F.C. Jr., R.E. Rust, G.R. Popenhagen, and B. Miner. 1969. Effect of postmortem aging time and temperature on beef muscle attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 29:398–403.
Parrish, F.C. Jr., J.A. Boles, R.E. Rust, and D.G. Olson. 1991. Dry and wet aging effects on palatability attributes of beef loin and rib steaks from three quality grades. J. Food Sci. 56:601–603.
Parsell, D.A., and S. Lindquist. 1993. The function of heat-shock proteins in stress tolerance: Degradation and reactivation of damaged proteins. Ann. Rev. of Gen. 27:437–496.
Parsons, B., D. Szczesna, J. Zhao, G. Van Slooten, W.G. Kerrick, J.A. Putkey, and J.D. Potter. 1997. The effect of pH on the Ca2+ affinity of the Ca2+ regulatory sites of skeletal and cardiac troponin C in skinned muscle fibers. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil.18:599–609.
Paul, P., and B.B. McLean. 1946. Studies on veal. II. Variation between somemuscles of the hindquarter. Food Res. 11:116–120.
Paul, P., and L.J. Bratzler. 1955. Studies on tenderness of beef. III. Size of shear cores and end to end variation in the semimembranosus and adductor. Food Res. 20:635–638.
Paulick, C., F.A. Stolle, and G. Von Mickwitz. 1989. The influence of different stunning methods on meat quality of sheep meat. Fleischwirtsch 69:227–230.
Paulsen,G., K. Vissing, J.M. Kalhovde, I. Ugelstad, M.L. Bayer, F. Kadi, P. Schjerling, J. Hallen, and T. Raastad. 2007. Maximal eccentric exercise induces a rapid accumulation of small heat shock proteins on myofibrils and a delayed HSP70 response in humans. Amer. J. Physiol. Regul., Integr. Compar. Physiol. 293:R844–R853.
Peacock, F.M., M. Koger, A.Z. Palmer, J.W. Carpenter, and T.A. Olson. 1982. Additive breed and heterosis effects for individual and maternal influences on feedyard gain and carcass traits of Angus, Brahman, Charolais and crossbred steers. J. Anim. Sci. 55:797.
Pearson, A.M., and R.B. Young. 1989. Muscle and meat biochemistry. San Diego: Academic Press.
Peng, Y., and R. Lu. 2008. Analysis of spatially resolved hyperspectral scattering images for assessing apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content. Postharv. Biol. Tech. 48:52–62.
Peng, Y., and J. Wu. 2008. Hyperspectral scattering profiles for prediction of beef tenderness. ASABE Ann. Intl. Meet. No: 080004.
Peng, Y., J. Wu, and J. Chen. 2009. Prediction of beef quality attributes using hyperspectral scattering imaging technique. ASABE Ann. Intl. Meet. No. 096424.
Peng, Y., J. Wu, J. Chen, W. Wang, and S. Dhakal. 2010. A hyperspectral imaging system for prediction of beef internal quality. ASABE Ann. Intl. Meet. No. 1009886.
Penny, I. F. 1980. The enzymology of conditioning. In: R. Lawrie (ed.) Developments in Meat Science. p 115. Applied Science, Rarking, UK.
Perez-Alvarez, J. A., E. Sendra-Nadal, E.J. Sanchez-Zapata, and M. Viuda-Martos. 2010.
Poultry flavour: General aspects and applications. In I. Guerrero-Legarreta, & Y. H. Hui (Eds.), Handbook of poultry science and technology (pp. 339–357). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Perry, S.V., and H.A. Cole. 1974. Phosphorylation of troponin and the effects of interactions between the components of the complex. Biochem. J. 141:733-743.
Petersen, G.V., and D.K. Blackmore. 1982. The effect of different slaughter methods on the post mortem glycolysis of muscle in lambs. New Zeal. Vet. J. 30:195–198.
Petherick, C.J., and J.C. Phillips. 2009. Space allowances for confined livestock and their determination from allometric principles. Appl. Anim. Behaviour Sci.117:1–12.
Petherick, J.C., R.G. Holroyd, V.J. Doogan, and B.K. Venus. 2002. Productivity, carcass and meat quality of lot-fed Bos indicus cross steers grouped according to temperament. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 42:389–398.
Pethick, D.W., A.J. Ball, R.G. Banks, and J.F. Hocquette. 2011. Current and future issues facing red meat quality in a competitive market and how to manage continuous improvement. Anim. Prod. Sci. 51:13–18.
Pethick, D.W., L. Cummins, G.E. Gardner, B.W. Knee, M. McDowell, M. McIntyre, G. Tudor, P.J. Walker, and R.D. Warner. 1999. The regulation by nutrition of glycogen in the muscle of ruminants. Recent Adv. Anim. Nutr. Austr. 12:145–152.
Petrović, L., R. Grujić, and M. Petrović. 1993. Definition of the optimal freezing rate—2. Investigation of the physico-chemical properties of beef M. longissimus dorsi frozen at different freezing rates. Meat Sci. 33:319–331.
Pfeiffer, K.D., K.L. Voges, D.A. King, D.B. Griffin, and J.W. Savell. 2005. Innovative wholesale carcass fabrication and retail cutting to optimize beef value. Meat Sci. 71:743–752.
Pfizer. 2009a. Understanding GeneSTAR MVP results. Pfizer Anim. Health Anim. Genet., Albion, Queensland, Australia.
Pfizer. 2009b. GeneSTAR MVPs—Molecular value predictions for beef feed efficiency, marbling and tenderness. Technical summary, March 2009. Pfizer Anim. Health Anim. Genet., Albion, Queensland, Australia.
Pham, A.J., M.W. Schilling, W.B. Mikel, J.B. Williams, J.M. Martin, and P.C. Coggins. 2008. Relationships between sensory descriptors, consumer acceptability and volatile flavor compounds of American dry-cured ham. Meat Sci., 80: 728–737.
Phillips, A.L., C. Faustman, M.P. Lynch, K.E. Govoni, T.A. Hoagland, and S.A. Zinn. 2001. Effect of dietary α-tocopherol supplementation on color and lipid stability in pork. Meat Sci. 58:389–393.
Phillips, C.J.C., and E. Santurtun. 2013. The welfare of livestock transported by ship. Vet. J. 196:309–314.
Phocas, F., X. Boivin, J. Sapa, G. Trillat, A. Boissy, and P. Le Neindre. 2006. Genetic correlations between temperament and breeding traits in Limousin heifers. Anim. Sci. 82:805–811.
Pickworth, C.L., S.C. Loerch, and F.L. Fluharty. 2012a. Restriction of vitamin A and D in beef cattle finishing diets on feedyard performance and adipose accretion. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1866–1878.
Pickworth, C.L., S.C. Loerch, and F.L. Fluharty. 2012b. Effects of timing and duration of dietary vitamin A reduction on carcass quality of finishing beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 90:2677–2691.
Pietrasik, Z., and P.J. Shand. 2011. Effects of moisture enhancement, enzyme treatment, and blade tenderization on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef Semimembranosus steaks. Meat Sci. 88:8–13.
Pikosky, M.A., P.C. Gaine, W.F. Martin, K.C. Grabarz, A.A. Ferrando, R.R. Wolfe, N.R. Rodriguez. 2006. Aerobic exercise training increases skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy adults at rest. J Nutr 136: 379–383.
Pinto, L.F.B., J.B.S. Ferraz, V.B. Pedrosa, L.P. Eler, F.V. Meirelles, M.N. Bonin,and R.C.G. Silva. 2011. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN and leptin genes associated with meat color and tenderness in Nellore cattle. Gen. and Molec. Res. 10:2057–2064.
Pitchford,W.S., M.P.B. Deland, B.D. Siebert, A.E.O. Malau-Aduliand, and C.D.K. Bottema. 2002. Genetic variation in fatness and fatty acid composition of crossbred cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2825–2832.
Platter, W.J., J.D. Tatum, K.E. Belk, J.A. Scanga, and G.C. Smith. 2003a. Effects of repetitive use of hormonal implants on beef carcass quality tenderness, and consumer ratings of beef palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 81:984–996.
Platter, W.J., J.D. Tatum, K.E. Belk, S.R. Koontz, P.L. Chapman, and G. C. Smith. 2005. Effects of marbling and shear force on consumers’ willingness to pay for beef strip loin steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 83:890–899.
Pogge, D.J., and S.L. Hansen. 2013. Supplemental vitamin C improves marbling in feedyard cattle consuming high sulfur diets. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4303–4314.
Polkinghorne, R. 2005. Does variation between muscles in sensory traits preclude carcass grading as useful tool for consumers? Proc. 51st Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech., August 7–12, 2005 — Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Polkinghorne, R.J., and J.M. Thompson. 2010. Meat standards and grading: A world view. Meat Sci. 86:227–235.
Polkinghorne, R., T. Nishimura, K.E. Neath, and R. Watson. 2011. Japanese consumer categorisation of beef into quality grades, based onMeat Standards Australiamethodology. Anim. Sci. J. 82:325–333.
Polkinghorne, R., J. Thompson, R. Watson, A. Gee, and M. Porter. 2008a. Evolution of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) beef grading system. Austr. J. Exper. Agric. 48:1351–1359.
Polkinghorne, R., R. Watson, M. Porter, A. Gee, J. Scott, and J. Thompson. 1999. Meat Standards Australia, A ’PACCP’ based beef grading scheme for consumers. 1) The use of consumer scores to set grade standards. 45th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. and Tech., Yokohama, Japan 45:14–15.
Prado, I.N., F.B. Moreira, M. Matsushita, and N.E. Souza. 2003. Longissimus dorsi fatty acids composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 46:599–606.
Prescott, J., O. Young, and L. O’Neill. 2001. The impact of variations in flavour compounds on meat acceptability: A comparison of Japanese and New Zealand consumers. Food Qual. Pref. 12:257–264.
Price, E.O., T.E. Adams, C.C. Huxsoll, and R.E. Borqwardt. 2003. Aggressive behavior is reduced in bulls actively immunized against gonadotropin-releasing hormone. J. Anim. Sci. 81:411–415.
Price, M.G. 1991. Striated muscle endosarcomeric and exosarcomeric lattices. Adv. Struct. Biol. 1:175–207.
Pringle, T.D., S.E. Williams, B.S. Lamb, D.D. Johnson, and R.L. West. 1997. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2955-2961.
Priolo, A., D. Micol, J. Agabriel, S. Prache, and E. Dransfield. 2002. Effect of grass or concentrate feeding systems on lamb carcass and meat quality. Meat Sci. 62:179–185.
Priolo, A., A. Cornu, S. Prache, M. Krogmann, N. Kondjoyan, D. Micol, et. al. 2004. Fat volatiles tracers of grass feeding in sheep. Meat Sci. 66: 475–481.
Prost, E., E. Pelczynska, and A.W. Kotula. 1975. Quality characteristics of bovine meat. II. Beef tenderness in relation to individual muscles, age and sex of animal, and carcass quality grade. J. Anim. Sci. 41:541–547.
Pulford, D.J., S. Fraga Vazquez, D.F. Frost, E. Fraser-Smith, P. Dobbie, and K. Rosenvold. 2008. The intracellular distribution of small heat shock proteins in post-mortem beef is determined by ultimate pH. Meat Sci. 79:623–630.
Pulford, D.J., P. Dobbie, S. Fraga Vazquez, E. Fraser-Smith, D.F. Frost, and C.A. Morris. 2009. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels. Meat Sci. 83:1–9.
Purchas, R. W., and R. A. Barton. 1976. Tenderness of meat of several breeds of cattle raised under New Zealand pastoral conditions. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 19:421–428.
Purchas, R.W., and R. Aungsupakorn. 1993. Further investigations into the relationship between ultimate pH and tenderness for beef samples from bulls and steers. Meat Sci. 34:163–178.
Purchas, R.W., D.L. Burnham, and S.T. Morris. 2002. Effect of growth potential and growth path on tenderness of beef longissimus muscle for bulls and steers. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3211-3221.
Purslow, P.P. 1985. The physical basis of meat texture: observations on the fracture behavior of cooked bovine M. semitendinosus. Meat Sci. 12:39-60.
Purslow, P.P. 2005. Review: intramuscular connective tissue and its role in meat quality. Meat Sci. 70:435–447.
Purslow, P.P., A.C. Archile-Contreras, and M.C. Cha. 2012. Manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue. J. Anim. Sci.. 90:950–959.
Qi, W., H. Chan, L. Teng, L. Li, S. Chuai, R. Zhang., et. al. 2012. Selective inhibition of Ezh2 by a small molecule inhibitor blocks tumor cells proliferation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:21360–21365.
Rabe, S., U. Krings, and R.G. Berger. 2003. Dynamic flavour release from miglyol/water emulsions: Modelling and validation. Food Chem. 84:117–125.
Radecki, S.V., M.R. Juhl,and E.R. Miller. 1988. Fumaric and citric acids as feed additives in starter pig diets: Effect on performance and nutrient Balance1. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2598–2605.
Radunz, A.E., S.C. Loerch, G.D. Lowe, F.L. Fluharty, and H.N. Zerby. 2009. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedyard performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2971–2976.
Raes, K., S. De Smet, A. Balcaen, E. Claeys, and D. Demeyer. 2003. Effect of diets rich in N−3 polyunsatured fatty acids on muscle lipids and fatty acids in Belgian Blue double-muscled young bulls. Reprod. Nutr. Devel. 43:331–345.
Rahelic, S. and S. Puac. 1981. Fiber types in longissimus-dorsi from wild and highly selected pig breeds. Meat Sci. 5:439-450.
Raines, C.R., M.C. Hunt, and J.A. Unruh. 2009. Cow biological type affects ground beef color stability. Meat Sci. 83:752–758.
Raines, C.R., M.C. Hunt, and J.A. Unruh. 2010. Contributions of muscles of various color stabilities to the overall color stability of ground beef. J. Food Sci. 75:C85–C89.
Raines, C.R., M.E. Dikeman, J.A. Unruh, M.C. Hunt, and R.C. Knock. 2008. Predicting cattle age from eye lens weight and nitrogen content, dentition, and United States Department of Agriculture maturity score. J. Anim. Sci. 86:3557–3567.
Raman, B., and C.M. Rao. 1994. Chaperone-like activity and quaternary structure of alphacrystallin. J. Bio. Chem. 269:27264–27268.
Ramírez-Retamal, J., and R. Morales. 2014. Influence of breed and feeding on the main quality characteristics of sheep carcass andmeat: A review. Chil. J. Agric. Res. 74:225–233.
Ramsbottom, J.M., and E.J. Strandine. 1948. Comparative tenderness and identification of muscles in wholesale beef cuts. Food Res. 13:315–330.
Ramsbottom, J.M., E.J. Strandine, and C.H. Koonz. 1945. Comparative tenderness of representative beef muscles. Food Res. 10:497–509.
Ramsey, C.B., J.W. Cole, B.H. Meyer, and R.S. Temple. 1963. Effects of type and breed of British, Zebu and dairy cattle on production, palatability and composition. II. Palatability differences and cooking losses as determined by laboratory and family panels. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1001–1008.
Rao, P.V., J. Horwitz, and J.S. Zigler. 1993. [Alpha]-crystallin, a molecular chaperone, forms a stable complex with carbonic anhydrase upon heat denaturation. Biochemic. Biophys. Res. Comm. 190:786–793.
Rathmann, R.J., J.M. Mehaffey, T.J. Baxa, W.T. Nichols, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, J.C. Brooks, B.J. Johnson, and M.F. Miller. 2009. Effects of duration of zilpaterol hydrochloride and days on the finishing diet on carcass cutability, composition, tenderness, and skeletal muscle gene expression in feedyard steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3686–3701.
Rathmann, R.J., B.C. Bernhard, R.S. Swingle, T.E. Lawrence, W.T. Nichols, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, M.N. Streeter, J.C. Brooks, M.F. Miller, and B.J. Johnson. 2012. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and days on the finishing diet on feedyard performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 90:3301–3311.
Ravnskjaer, K., F. Frigerio, M. Boergesen, T. Nielsen, P. Maechler, and S. Mandrup. 2010. PPARdelta is a fatty acid sensor that enhances mitochondrial oxidation in insulin secreting cells and protects against fatty acid-induced dysfunction. J. Lipid Res. 51:1370–1379.
Raynaud, F., E. Fernandez, G. Coulis, L. Aubry, X. Vignon, N. Bleimling, M. Gautel, Y. Benyamin, and A. Ouali. 2005. Calpain 1–titin interactions concentrate calpain 1 in the Z-band edges and in the N2-line region within the skeletal myofibril. FEBS J. 272:2578–2590.
Reagan, J.O., Z.L. Carpenter, G.C. Smith, and G.T. King. 1971. Comparison of palatability traits of beef produced by young bulls and steers. J. Anim. Sci. 32: 641-646.
Realini, C.E., S.K. Duckett, G.W. Brito, M. Dalla Rizza, and D. De Mattos. 2004. Effect of pasture vs. concentrate feeding with or without antioxidants on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and quality of Uruguayan beef. Meat Sci. 66:567–577.
Realini, C.E., M. Font i Furnols, F. Sañudo, C.,Montossi, M.A. Oliver, and L. Guerrero, 2013. Spanish, French and British consumers’ acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers’ beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price. Meat Sci. 95:14–21.
Realini, C.E., M. Font i Furnols, L. Guerrero, F. Montossi, M.M. Campo, C. Sañudo, G.R. Nute, I. Alvarez, V. Cañeque, G. Brito, and M.A. Oliver. 2009. Effect of finishing diet on consumer acceptability of Uruguayan beef in the European market. Meat Sci. 81:499–506.
Reardon, W., A.M. Mullen, T. Sweeney, and R.M. Hamill. 2010. Association of polymorphisms in candidate genes with color, water-holding capacity, and composition traits in bovine M. longissimus and M. semimembranosus. Meat Sci. 86:270–275.
Rebouche, C.J. 1991. Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:1147S–1152S.
Reddy, L.M., and C.E. Carpenter. 1991. Determination ofmetmyoglobin reductase activity in bovine skeletal muscles. J. Food Sci. 56:1161–1164.
Reeds, P.J., S.M. Hay, P.M., Dorwood, and R.M. Palmer. 1986. Stimulation of muscle growth by clenbuterol: lack of effect on muscle protein biosynthesis. Brit. J. Nutr. 56:249–258.
Reichert, B., R. Yasmeen, S.M. Jeyakumar, F. Yang, T. Thomou, H. Alder., et. al. 2011. Concerted action of aldehyde dehydrogenases influences depot-specific fat formation. Molec. Endo. 25:799–809.
Reicks, A.L., J.C. Brooks, A.J. Garmyn, L.D. Thompson, C.L. Lyford, and M.F. Miller. 2011. Demographics and beef preferences affect consumer motivation for purchasing beef steaks and roasts. Meat Sci. 87:403–411.
Reik, W. 2007. Stability and flexibility of epigenetic gene regulation in mammalian development. Nature 447:425–432.
Reiling, B.A., and D.D. Johnson. 2003. Effects of implant regimens (trenbolone acetate-estradiol administration alone or in combination with zeranol) and bitamin D3 on fresh beef color and quality. J. Anim. Sci. 81:135-142.
Renand, G., A. Havy, and F. Turin. 2002. Beef traits and meat quality characterisation in three French beef production systems with Salers, Aubrac and Gascon bulls. INRA Prod. Anim. 15:171–183.
Renand, G., B. Picard, C. Touraille, P. Berge, and J. Lepetit. 2001. Relationships between muscle characteristics and meat quality traits of young charolais bulls. Meat Sci. 59:49–60.
Renerre, M. 1986. Influence de facteurs biologiques et technologiques sur la couleur de la viande bovine. Bull. Tech. C.R.Z.V. Theix, I.N.R.A. 65:41-45.
Renerre, M. 1990. Factors involved in the discoloration of beef meat. International J. Food Sci. Tech. 25:613–630.
Renerre, M., and J.P. Mazuel. 1985. Relations entre méthodes de mesures instrumentales et sensorielles de la couleur da la viande. Sci. des Aliments. 5:541-557.
Renerre, M., and R. Labas. 1987. Biochemical factors influencing metmyoglobin formation in beef muscles. Meat Sci. 19:151–165.
Renerre, M., F. Dumont, and P. Gatellier. 1996. Antioxidant enzyme activities in beef in relation to oxidation of lipid and myoglobin. Meat Sci. 43:111–121.
Resconi, V.C., A. Escudero, and M.M. Campo. 2013. The development of aroma in ruminant meat. Molecules 18:6748–6781.
Resconi, V.C., M.M. Campo, F. Montossi, V. Ferreira, C. Saňudo, and A. Escudero. 2010. Relationship between odour-active compounds and flavour perception in meat from lambs fed different diets. Meat Sci. 85:700–706.
Resconi, V.C., A. Escudero, J.A. Beltrán, J.L. Olleta, C. Sañudo, and M. Campo. 2012. Color, lipid oxidation, sensory quality, and aroma compounds of beef steaks displayed under different levels of oxygen in a modified atmosphere package. J. Food Sci. 77:S10–S18.
Reverter, A., D.J. Johnston, D.M. Ferguson, D. Perry, M.E. Goddard, H.M. Burrow, V.H. Oddy, J.M. Thompson, and B.M. Bindon. 2003. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of animal, carcass, and meat quality traits from temperate and tropically adapted beef breeds. 4. Correlations among animal, carcass, and meat quality traits. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 54:149–158.
Review of the First International Live Stock Exposition Held at Union Stock Yard Chicago, December 1st to 8th, 1900. Published by The Union and Stock Yard and Transit Co. of Chicago Ill. 1901.
Reville, W.J., B.A. Murray, S. Ahern, and M.G. Zeece. 1994. Easily releasable myofilaments in post mortem bovine muscle. Scienza deli’Alimentazione. 14:431–440.
Rhee, M. S., and B. C. Kim. 2001. Effect of low voltage electrical stimulation and temperature conditioning on postmortem changes in glycolysis and calpains activities of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Meat Sci. 58:231–237
Rhee, M.S., T.L. Wheeler, S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2004. Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 534-550.
Richardson, E.C., and R.M. Herd. 2004. Biological basis for variation in residual feed intake in beef cattle. 2. Synthesis of results following divergent selection. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44:431–440.
Richter, E.L., M.E. Drewnoski, and S.L. Hansen. 2012. The effect of dietary sulfur on performance, mineral status, rumen hydrogen sulfide, and rumen microbial populations in yearling beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 90:3945–3953.
Riley, D.G., C.C. Chase, Jr., T.D. Pringle, R.L. West, D.D. Johnson, T.A. Olson, A.C. Hammond, and S.W. Coleman. 2003. Effect of sire on µ- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2440-2447.
Ritchey, S.J., and R.L. Hostetler. 1964. Characterization of the eating quality of four beef muscles fromanimals of different ages by panel scores, shear force values, extensibility of muscle fiber, and collagen content. Food Tech. 18:1067–1070.
Rivaroli, D.C., A. Guerrero, M.V. Valero, F. Zawadzki, C.E. Eiras, M. del Mar Campo, C. Sañudo, A.M. Jorge, I.N. do Prado. 2016. Effect of essential oils on meat and fat qualities of crossbred young bulls finished in feedyards. Meat Sci. 121:278–284.
Robbins, K, J.Jensen, K.J. Ryan, C. Homco-Ryan, F.K. McKeith, and M.S Brewer. 2003a. Dietary vitamin E supplementation effects on the color and sensory characteristics of enhanced beef steaks. Meat Sci. 64:279–285.
Robertson, I.S., J.C. Wilson, and H.M. Fraser. 1979. Immunological castration in male cattle. Vet. Rec. 105:556–557.
Robinson, D.L., L.M. Cafe, B.L. McIntyre, G.H. Geesink, W. Barendse, D. W. Pethick, J.M. Thompson, R. Polkinghorne, and P.L. Greenwood. 2012. Production and processing studies on calpainsystem gene markers for beef tenderness: Consumer assessments of eating quality. J. Anim. Sci. 90:2850–2860.
Rochat, S., and A. Chaintreau. 2005. Carbonyl odorants contributing to the in-oven roast beef top note. J. Sci. Food Agric. 53:9578.
Rodríguez-Estrada, M.T., G. Penazzi, M.F. Caboni, G. Bertacco, and G. Lercker. 1997. Effect of different cooking methods on some lipid and protein components of hamburgers. Meat Sci. 45:365–375.
Roeber, D.L., R.K. Gill, and A. DiCostanzo. 2005. Meat quality responses to feeding distiller’s grains to finishing Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2455–2460.
Roeber, D.L., K.E. Belk, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wilson, and G.C. Smith. 2001a. Effects of three levels of alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation to feedyard cattle on performance of beef cuts during retail display. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1814–1820.
Roeber, D.L., R.C. Cannel, K.E. Belk, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, and G.C. Smith. 2000a. Implant strategies during feeding: impact on carcass grades and consumer acceptability. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1867-1874.
Roeber, D.L., N.C. Speer, J.G. Gentry, J.D. Tatum, C.D. Smith, J.C. Whittier, G.F. Jones, K.E. Belk, and G.C. Smith. 2001b. Feeder cattle health management: Effects on morbidity rates, feedyard performance, carcass characteristics, and beef palatability. Prof. Anim. Sci. 17:39–44.
Rogalla, T., M. Ehrnsperger, X. Preville, A. Kotlyarov, G. Lutsch, C. Ducasse, C. Paul, M. Wieske, A.P. Arrigo, J. Buchner, and M. Gaestel. 1999. Regulation of Hsp27 oligomerization, chaperone function, and protective activity against oxidative stress/tumor necrosis factor alpha by phosphorylation. J. Biol. Chem. 274:18947–18956.
Rogers, H.R., J.C. Brooks, M.C. Hunt, G.G. Hilton, D.L. VanOverbeke, J. Killefer, T.E. Lawrence, R.J. Delmore, B.J. Johnson, D.M. Allen, M.N. Streeter, W.T. Nichols, J.P. Hutcheson, D.A. Yates, J.N. Martin, and M.F. Miller. 2010. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1168-1183.
Roseland, J.M., Q.V. Nguyen, J.R. Williams, L.W. Douglass, K.Y. Patterson, J.C. Howe, et. al. 2015. Protein, fat, moisture and cooking yields froma U.S. study of retail beef cuts. J. Food Compos. Anal. 43:131–139.
Rosen, E.D., and O.A. MacDougald. 2006. Adipocyte differentiation from the inside out. Nature Rev. Molec. Cell Biol. 7:885–896.
Rosenvold, K., M.C.E. North, E. Devine, P. Micklander, et. al. 2007. The protective effect of electrical stimulation and wrapping on beef tenderness at high pre rigor temperatures. Meat Sci. 79: 299–306.
Rosser, B.W., B.J. Norris, and P.M. Nemeth. 1992. Metabolic capacity of individual muscle fibers from different anatomic locations. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 40:819–825.
Rossman, M.G. 1981. Evolution of glycolytic enzymes. Philos. Trans R Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 293:191-203.
Rothschild, M.F., Z.L. Hu, and Z. Jiang. 2007. Advances in QTL mapping in pigs. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 3:192–197.
Rouquette Jr.,F.M., T.D.A. Forbes, R.K. Miller, K.R. Hawks, C.C. Santos, E.F. Delgado, J.W. Holloway, B. G. Warrington, and C.R. Long. 2014. Natural beef production and growth of Bonsmara steers stocked on rye and ryegrass pastures at humid and semiarid environments. Profes. Anim. Scientist TBC (TBC):1–11.
Rowe, L.J., K.R. Maddock, S.M. Lonergan, and E. Huff-Lonergan. 2004a. Influence of early postmortem protein oxidation on beef quality. J. Anim. Sci. 82:785-793.
Rowe, L.J., K.R. Maddock, S.M. Lonergan, and E. Huff-Lonergan. 2004b. Oxidative environments decrease tenderization of beef steaks through inactivation of mu-calpain. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3254-3266.
Rowe, R.W.D. 1974. Collagen Fiber arrangement in intramuscular connective tissue. Changes associated with muscle shortening and their possible relevance to raw meat toughness measurements. J. Food Tech. 9:501−508.
Roy, B. (Ed.). 1996. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic 316 pp.
Roy, B.C., G. Sedgewick, J.L. Aalhus, J.A. Basarabc, H.L. Bruce. 2015. Modification of mature non-reducible collagen cross-link concentrations in bovine m. gluteus medius and semitendinosus with steer age at slaughter, breed cross and growth promotants. Meat Sci. 110:109–117.
Rucklidge, G.J.,G. Milne, B.A. McGaw, E. Milne, and S.P. Robins. 1992. Turnover rates of different collagen types measures by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1156:57-61.
Russell, R.G., and F.T. Oteruelo. 1981. An ultrastructural study of the differentiation of skeletal muscle in the bovine fetus. Anat. Embryol.162:403−417.
Rust, S.R., D.M. Price, J. Subbiah, G. Kranzler, G.G. Hilton, D.L. Vanoverbeke, and J.B. Morgan. 2008. Predicting beef tenderness using near-ionfrared spectroscopy. J. Anim. Sci. 86:211-219.
Ryan, E.S., A. Aherne, M.N. O’Grady, L. McGovern, J.P. Kerry, and N.M. O’Brian. 2009. Bioactivity of herb enriched beef patties. J. Med. Foods 12:893-901.
Rymill, S.R. 1997. Factors affecting the sensory evaluation of cooked meat. Master Rural Science thesis, University of New England, Armidale.
Ryu, Y.C., and B.C. Kim. 2005. The relationship between muscle fiber characteristics, postmortem metabolic rate, and meat quality of pig longissimus dorsi muscle. Meat Sci 71:351–357.
Sacks, B., N.H. Casey, E. Boshof, E., and H. van Zyl. 1993. Influence of freezing method on thaw drip and protein loss of low-voltage electrically stimulated and nonstimulated sheeps’ muscle. Meat Sci. 34:235–243.
Sadkowski, T., A. Ciecierska, A.Majewska, J. Oprządek, K. Dasiewicz, M. Ollik, Z.Wicik, T.Motyl. 2014. Transcriptional background of beefmarbling—Novel genes implicated in intramuscular fat deposition. Meat Sci. 97:32–41.
Safari, E., N.M. Fogarty, G.R. Ferrier, L.D. Hopkins, and A. Gilmour. 2001. Diverse lamb genotypes. 3. Eating quality and the relationship between its objective measurement and sensory assessment. Meat Sci. 57:153-159.
Saiga, A., S. Tanabe, and T. Nishimura. 2003. Antioxidant activity of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment. J. Agr. And Food Chem. 51:3661–3667.
Sainz, R.D., F. De la Torre, and J.W. Oltjen. 1995. Compensatory growth and carcass quality in growth-restricted and refed beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2971–2979.
Sales, J., and V. Koukolova. 2011. Dietary vitamin E and lipid and color stability of beef and pork: Modeling of relationships. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2836–2848.
Samber, J.A., J.D. Tatum, M.I. Wray, W.T. Nichols, J.B. Morgan, and G.C. Smith. 1996. Implant program effects on performance and carcass quality opf steer calves finished for 212 days. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1470-1476.
Samuelsson, A.M., P.A. Matthews, M. Argenton, M.R. Christie, J.M. McConnell, E.H. Jansen, et. al. 2008. Diet-induced obesity in femalemice leads to offspring hyperphagia, adiposity, hypertension, and insulin resistance: A novel murine model of developmental programming. Hypertension 51:383–392.
Sandri, M., U. Carraro, M. Podhorska-Okolov, C. Rizzi, P. Arslan, D. Monti, and C. Franceschi. 1995. Apoptosis, DNA damage and ubiquitin expression in normal and mdx muscle fibers after exercise. FEBS Letters 373:291–295.
Santoro, M.G. 2000. Heat shock factors and the control of the stress response. Biochem. Pharmacol. 59:55–63.
Saňudo, C., M.E. Enser,M.M. Campo, G.R. Nute, G. Maria, I. Sierra, and J.D. Wood. 2000. Fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of lamb carcasses from Britain and Spain. Meat Sci. 54:339–346.
Sapa, J., K. Donoghue, and F. Phocas. 2006. Genetic parameters between sexes for temperament traits in Limousin cattle. Pp. 174 In Proc. 8th World Congr. Genetics Applied Livest. Prod., Brazil. World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Sasaki, K., M. Motoyama, and T. Narita. 2012. Increased intramuscular fat improves both ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ as defined In: ISO5492:1992 of beef longissimus muscles of Holstein × Japanese Black F1 steers. Anim. Sci. J., 83:338–343.
Sasaki, N., M. Nakamura,and S. Soeta. 2014. Molecular analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenases isolated from domestic cats (Felis catus). Gen. Molec. Res. 13:6855–6864.
Sasaki, Y., K. Nagai, Y. Nagata, K. Doronbekov, S. Nishimura, S. Yoshioka and T. Yamada. 2006. Exploration of genes showing intramuscular fat deposition-associated expression changes in musculus longissimus muscle. Anim. Gen. 37:40–46.
Savell, J. W. 2007. Non-conforming beef research summit: Executive Summary. Research and Knowledge Management Division of the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, Centennial, CO.
Savell, J.W., and H.R. Cross. 1988. The role of fat in the palatability of beef, pork and lamb. In: Designing foods: Animal Product Options in the Market Place. Pp. 345-356. National Academy Press, Washington D.C.
Savell, J.W., and S.D. Shackleford. 1992. Significance of tenderness to the meat industry. In Proceedings of 45th annual reciprocal meat conference, Colorado, USA pp. 43-46.
Savell, J. W., G. C. Smith, and Z. L. Carpenter. 1978. Beef Quality and palatability as affected by electrical stimulation and cooler aging. J. Food Sci. 43:1666−1668,1677.
Savell, J.W., H.R. Cross, and G.C. Smith. 1986. Percentage ether extractible fat and moisture content of beef longissimus muscle as related to USDA marbling score. J. Food Sci. 51:838-840.
Savell, J. W., R. E. Branson, H. R. Cross, D. M. Stiffler, J. W. Wise, D. B. Griffin, and G. C. Smith. 1987. National consumer retail beef study: Palatability evaluations of beef loin steaks that differed in marbling. J. Food Sci. 52:517–519.
Savell, J.W., C.L. Lorenzen, T.R. Neely, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J. Buyck and J.O. Reagan. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top sirloin steak. J. Anim. Sci. 77:645-652.
Savoia, S., A. Brugiapaglia, A. Pauciullo, L. Di Stasio, S. Schiavon, G. Bittante, and A. Albera. 2019. Characterisation of beef production systems and their eﬀects on carcass and meat quality traits of Piemontese young bulls. Meat Sci. 153:75-85.
Sayd, T., M. Morzel, C. Chambon, M. Franck, P. Figwer, C. Larzul, P. Le Roy, G. Monin, P. Cherel, and E. Laville. 2006. Proteome analysis of the sarcoplasmic fraction of pig semimembranosus muscle: Implications on meat color development. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:2732–2737.
Schaefer, D.M. 2000. Potential for altering quality ofmuscle andmilk fromruminants. In E. A. Decker, C. Faustman, and C. J. Lopez-Bote (Eds.), Antioxidants in muscle foods: Nutritional strategies to improve quality, pp. 155–198. New York:Wiley Interscience.
Schafer, A., E. Karaulanov, U. Stapf, G. Doderlein, and C. Niehrs. 2013. Ing1 functions in DNA demethylation by directing Gadd45a to H3K4me3. Genes Developm. 27:261–273.
Scheffler, J. M., D.D. Buskirk, S.R. Rust, J.D. Cowley, and M.E. Doumit. 2003. Effect of repeated administration of combination trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants on growth, carcass traits, and beef quality of long-fed Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2395–2400.
Scheffler, J.M., M.A. McCann, S.P. Greiner, H. Jiang, M.D. Hanigan, G.A. Bridges, S.L. Lake, and D.E. Gerrard. 2014. Early metabolic imprinting events increase marbling scores in fed cattle J. Anim. Sci. 92:320–324.
Schmidt, J.R., M.C. Miller, J.G. Andrae, S.E. Ellis, and S.K. Duckett. 2013. Effect of summer forage species grazed during finishing on animal performance, carcass quality, and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4451–4461.
Schneider, B.A., J.D. Tatum, T.E. Engle, and T.C. Bryant. 2007. Effects of heifer finishing implants on beef carcass traits and longissimus tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2019–2030.
Schneider, M.J., R.G. Tait, Jr., W.D. Busby,and J.M. Reecy. 2009. An evaluation of bovine respiratory disease complex in feedyard cattle: Impact on performance and carcass traits using treatment records and lung lesion scores. J.f Anim. Sci. 87:1821–1827.
Schroeder, J.W., D.A. Cramer, R.A. Bowling, and C.W. Cook. 1980. Palatability, shelf life, and chemical differences between forage- and grain-finished beef. J. Anim. Sci. 50:852.
Schuettengruber, B., and G. Cavalli. 2009. Recruitment of polycomb group complexes and their role in the dynamic regulation of cell fate choice. Developm. 136:3531–3542.
Schuettengruber, B., A.M. Martinez, N. Iovino, and G. Cavalli. 2011. Trithorax group proteins: Switching genes on and keeping them active. Nature Rev. Molec. Cell Biol. 12: 799–814.
Schultz-Altmann, A.G.T. 2008. Engineering and design of vessels for sea transport of animals: The Australian design regulations for livestock carriers. Veterinaria Italiana 44:247–258.
Schwartz, W., and J. W. Bird. 1977. Degradation of myoﬁ brillar proteins by cathepsins B and D. Biochem. J. 167:811–820.
Schwarz, E.J., M.J. Reginato, D. Shao, S.L. Krakow, and M.A. Lazar. 1997. Retinoic acid blocks adipogenesis by inhibiting C/EBPbeta-mediated transcription. Molec. Cell. Biol. 17:1552–1561.
Scollan, N.D., M.S. Dhanoa, N.J. Choi, W.J. Maeng, M. Enser, and J.D. Wood. 2001a. Biohydrogenation and digestion of long chain fatty acids in steers fed on different sources of lipid. J. Agr. Sci. 136:345–355.
Scollan, N.D., J.F. Hocquette, K. Nuernberg, D. Dannenberger, I. Richardson, and A. Moloney. 2006. Innovations in beef production systems that enhance the nutritional and health value of beef lipids and their relationship with meat quality. Meat Sci. 74:17–33.
Scramlin, S.M., W.J. Platter, R.A. Gomez, W.T. Choat, F.K. McKeith, and J. Killefer. 2010. Comparative effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass traits, and longissimus tenderness of finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1823–1829.
Sebastian, A.G., and I.B. Reghin. 2013. Community supported agriculture (CSA). Annals Constantin Brâncuşi, Univ. Târgu Jiu, Economy Series, Issue 3/2013. pp. 11–16.
Segars, R.A., H.A. Nordstrom, and J.G. Kapsalis. 1974. Textural characteristics of beef muscle. J. Texture Stud. 5:283–297.
Seggern, D.D.V., C.R. Calkins, D.D., Johnson, J.E. Brickler, and B.L. Gwartney. 2005. Muscle profiling: characterizing themuscles of the beef chuck and round. Meat Sci. 71:39–51.
Seideman, S.C., J.D. Crouse, and H.R. Cross. 1986. The effect of sex condition and growth implants on bovine muscle fiber characteristics. Meat Sci. 17:79–95.
Seideman, S.C., H.R. Cross, and J.D. Crouse. 1989. Variation in the sensory properties of beef as affected by sex condition, muscle, and postmortem aging. J. Food Qual. 12:49–58.
Seideman, S.C., H.R. Cross, G.C. Smith, and P.R. Durland. 1984. Factors affecting fresh meat color: a review. J. Food Qual. 6:211-237.
Seideman, S.C., Z.L. Carpenter, G.C. Smith, and K.E. Hoke. 1976. Effect of degree of vacuum and length of storage on the physical characteristics of vacuum packaged beef wholesale cuts. J. Food Sci. 41:732–737.
Sekikawa M., K. Seno, and M. Mikami. Degradation of ubiquitin in beef during storage. 1998. Meat Sci. 48:201-204.
Semler, M.L., D.R. Woerner, K.E. Belk, K.J. Enns, and J.D. Tatum. 2016. Effects of USDA carcass maturity on sensory attributes of steaks produced by cattle representing two dental age classes. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2207–2217.
Sentandreu, M.A., G. Coulis, and A. Ouali. 2002. Role of muscle endopeptidases and their inhibitors in meat tenderness. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 13:398–419.
Seo, J.B., H.M. Moon, W.S. Kim, Y.S. Lee, H.W. Jeong, E.J. Yoo, and J.B. Kim. 2004. Activated liver X receptors stimulate adipocyte differentiation through induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression. Molec. Cell. Biol. 24: 3430–3444.
Serrano, R., M.J. Jordan, and S. Banon. 2014. Use of dietary rosemary extract in ewe and lamb to extend the shelf life of raw and cooked meat. Small Rum. Res. 116:144–152.
Seyfert, M., R. Mancini, M. Hunt, J. Tang, and C. Faustman. 2007. Influence of carbon monoxide in package atmospheres containing oxygen on color, reducing activity, and oxygen consumption of five bovine muscles. Meat Sci. 75:432–442.
Seyfert, M., R.A. Mancini, M.C. Hunt, J. Tang, C. Faustman, and M. Garcia. 2006. Color stability, reducing activity, and cytochrome c oxidase activity of five bovine muscles. J. Agri. Food Chem. 54:8919–8925.
Shackleford, S.D., T.L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 1995. Relationship between shear force and trained sensory panel tenderness ratings of 10 major muscles from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3333-3340.
Shackelford, S.D., T.L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 1997. Effect of the callipyge phenotype and cooking method on tenderness of several major lamb muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2100–2105.
Shackleford, S.D., T.L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 1999. Tenderness classification of beef: II. Design and analysis of a system to measure beef logissimus shear force under commercial processing conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1474-1481.
Shackleford, S.D., T.L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 2004. Development of optimal protocol for visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy evaluation of meat quality. Meat Sci. 68:371-381.
Shackleford, S.D., T.L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 2005. On-line classification of U.S. Select beef carcasses for longissimus tenderness using visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Meat Sci. 69:409-415.
Shackelford, S.D., T.L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 2012. Technical note: Validation of a model for online classification of US Select beef carcasses for longissimus tenderness using visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J. Anim. Sci. 90:973–977.
Shackleford, S.D., J.B. Morgan, H.R. Cross, and J.W. Savell. 1991a. Identification of threshold levels for Warner-Bratzler shear force in beef top loin steaks. J. Muscle Foods 2:289-296.
Shackelford, S.D.,T.L. Wheeler, D.A. King, and M. Koohmaraie. 2012. Field testing of a system for online classification of beef carcasses for longissimus tenderness using visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J. Anim. Sci. 90:978–988.
Shackelford, S.D., M. Koohmaraie, T.L. Wheeler, L.V. Cundiff, and M.E. Dikeman. 1994. Effect of biological type of cattle on the incidence of the dark, firm, and dry condition in the longissimus muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:337–343.
Shackelford, S.D., M. Koohmaraie, L.V. Cundiff, K.E. Gregory, G.A. Rohrer, and J.W. Savell. 1994. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations for bovine postrigor calpastatin activity, intramuscular fat content, Warner–Bratzler shear force, retail product yield, and growth rate. J. Anim. Sci. 72:857–863.
Shackelford, S.D., T.L. Wheeler, M.K. Meade, J.O. Reagan, B.L. Byrnes, and M. Koohmaraie. 2001. Consumer impressions of tender select beef. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2605–2614.
Shahidi, F., L.J. Rubin, and L.A. D’Souza. 1986. Meat flavor volatiles: A review of the composition, techniques of analysis, and sensory evaluation. Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 24:141–243.
Shahidi, F., P.K. Janitha, and P.D. Wanasundara. 1992. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32:67–103.
Shamovsky, I., and E. Nudler. 2008. New insights into the mechanisms of heat shock response activation. Cell. Molec. Life Sci. 65:855–861.
Shanks, B.C., D.M. Wulf, and R.J. Madduck. 2002. Technical note: The effect of freezing on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of beef longissimus steaks across several postmortem aging periods. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2122-2125.
Sharafati-Chaleshtori, R., N. Rokni, M. Rafieian-Kopaei, F. Drees, and E. Salehi. 2015. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum l.) essential oil in beef burger. J. Agr. Sci. and Tech. 17:817–826.
Sharman, E.D., P.A. Lancaster, C.R. Krehbiel, G.G. Hilton, D.R. Stein, U.DeSilva, and G.W. Horn. 2013a. Effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements during winter grazing on partitioning of fat among depots and adipose tissue gene expression in growing cattle and final carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2264-2277.
Sharman, E.D., P.A. Lancaster, C.P. McMurphy, A.J. Garmyn, B.J. Pye, G.G. Mafi, C.L. Goad, W.A. Phillips, J.D. Starkey, C.R. Krehbiel, and G.W. Horn. 2013b. Effect of rate of body weight gain in steers during the stocker phase. I. Growth, partitioning of fat among depots, and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4322–4335.
Shaw, N., M. Elholm, and N. Noy. 2003. Retinoic acid is a high affinity selective ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta. J. Biol. Chem. 278:41589–41592.
Shen Q.W., W.J. Means, K.R. Underwood, S.A. Thompson, M.J. Zhu, R.J. McCormick et al. 2006 Early post-mortem AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation leads to phosphofructokinase-2 and −1 (PFK-2 and PFK-1) phosphorylation and the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) conditions in porcine longissimus muscle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:5583-5589.
Sherbeck, J.A., J.D. Tatum, T.G. Field, J.B. Morgan, and G.C. Smith. 1995a. Feedyard performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford_Brahman steers. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3613–3620.
Shibata M., K. Matsumoto M. Oe, M. Ohnishi-Kameyama, K. Ojima I. Nakajima, et al. 2009. Differential expression of the skeletal muscle proteome in grazed cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2700-2708.
Shimada, A., M. Watanuki, Y. Tanisawa, and K. Hatae. 1992. Changes in the taste of beef with aging. J. Home Econ. Japan 43:199–206.
Shin, S.C., and E.R. Chung. 2016. Identification of differentially expressed genes between high and low marbling score grades of the longissimus lumborum muscle in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Meat Sci. 121:114–118.
Shirouchi, B., E. Albrecht, G. Nuernberg, S. Maak, S. Olavanh, Y. Nakamura, et. al. 2014. Fatty acid profiles and adipogenic gene expression of various fat depots in Japanese Black and Holstein steers. Meat Sci. 96:157–164.
Shook, J.N., D.L. Van Overbeke, L.A. Kinman, C.R. Krehbiel, B.P. Holland, M.N. Streeter, D.A. Yates, and G.G. Hilton. 2009. Effects of zilpzterol hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride withdrawal time on beef carcass cutability, composition, and tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3677-3685.
Shorland, F.B., Z. Czochanska, M. Moy, R.A. Barton, and A.L. Rae. 1970. Influence of pasture species on the flavour, odour and keeping quality of lamb and mutton. J. Sci. Food Agr. 21:1–4.
Shorthose, W.R. 1989. Dark cutting in sheep and beef carcasses under the different environments in Australia. In S. U. Fabiansson, W. R. Shorthose, and R. D. Warner (Eds.), Dark cutting in cattle and sheep, pp. 68–73. Sydney: Australian Meat Livestock Res. Develop. Corp.
Shorthose, W.R., P.V. Harris, and P.E. Bouton. 1972. The effects on some properties of beef of resting and feeding cattle after a long journey to slaughter. Proc. Austral. Soc. Anim. Prod. 9:387–391.
Sifre, L., P. Berge, E. Engel, J.F. Martin, J.M. Bonny, A. Listrat, R. Taylor, and J. Culioli. 2005. Influence of the spatial organization of the perimysium on beef tenderness. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:8390–8399.
Sikes, A., E. Tornberg, and R. Tume. 2010. A proposed mechanism of tenderizing post-rigor beef using high pressure-heat treatment. Meat Sci. 84:390–399.
Sillence, M.N. 2004. Technologies for the control of fat and lean deposition in livestock. Vet. J. 167:242–257.
Silva, J.A., L. Patarata, and C. Martins. 1999. Influence of ultimate pH on bovine meat tenderness during aging. Meat Sci. 52:453–459.
Simmons, N. J., C. C. Daly, and T. L. Cummings. 2008. Reassessing the principles of electrical stimulation. Meat Sci. 80:110–122.
Simmons, N.J., J.M. Cairney, and C.C. Daly. 1997. Effect of pre-rigor temperature and muscle prestraint on the biophysical properties of meat tenderness. 43rd Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech., Auckland, New Zealand, 43:608–609.
Simmons, N.J., K. Singh, P.M. Dobbie, and C.E. Devine. 1996. The effect of pre-rigor holding temperature on calpain and calpastatin activity and meat tenderness. 42nd Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech., Lillehammer, Norway, 42:414–415.
Simmons, N.J., C.C. Daly, C.R., Mudford, I. Richards, G. Jarvis, and H. Pleiter. 2006. Integrated technologies to enhance meat quality — An Australasian perspective. Meat Sci. 74:172–179.
Simonin, H., F. Duranton, and M. de Lamballerie. 2012. New insights into the highpressure processing ofmeat and meat products. Comprehensive Reviews in FoodScience and Food Safety, 11(3), 285–306.
Sitz, B.M., C.R. Calkins, D.M. Feuz, W.J. Umberger, and K.M. Eskridge. 2005. Consumer sensory acceptance and value of domestic, Canadian, and Australian grassfed beef steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 83: 2863-2868.
Sivadier, G., J. Ratel, and E. Engel. 2010. Persistence of pasture feeding volatile biomarkers in lamb fats. Food Chem. 118:418–425.
Slanger, W.D., M.J. Marche,R.B. Danielson, C.N. Haugse, V.K. Johnson, A.S. Vidal, et al. 1985. Muscle tenderness, other carcass traits and the effect of crossbreeding on these traits in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 61:1402–1410.
Smith, B.K., L.E. Robinson, R. Nam, and D.W.L. Ma. 2009c. Trans-fatty acids and cancer: a mini-review. Br. J. Nutr. 102:1254-1266.
Smith, D.R., R.A. Moxley, T.J. Klopfenstein, and G.E. Erickson. 2009d. A randomized longitudinal trial to test the effect of regional vaccination within a cattle feedyard on Escherichia coli 0157:H7 rectal colonization, fecal shedding, and hide contamination. Foodborne Path. Dis. 6:885–892.
Smith, G.C. and Z.L. Carpenter. 1974. Eating quality of animal products and their fat content. Proceedings of the Symposium on Changing the Fat Content and Composition of Animal Products. Washington D. C. National Academy of Science.
Smith, G.C., G.R. Culp, and Z.L. Carpenter. 1978. Postmortem aging of beef carcasses. J. Food Sci. 43:823–826.
Smith, G.C., S.C. Seideman, and Z.L. Carpenter. 1979. Blade tenderization effects on cooking and palatability characteristics of steaks from bullock and cow carcasses. J. Food Prot. 42:563–566.
Smith, G.C., J.D. Tatum, and K.E. Belk. 2008a. International perspective: Characterisation of United States Department of Agriculture And Meat Standards Australia systems for assessing beef quality. Austr. J. Experim. Agr. 48:1465–1480.
Smith, G.C., J.W. Savell, H.R. Cross, and Z.L. Carpenter. 1983. The relationship of USDA quality grade to beef flavor. Food Tech. 37: 233-238.
Smith, G.C., J.B. Morgan, J.N. Sofos, and J.D. Tatum. 1996. Supplemental vitamin E in beef cattle diets to improve shelf-life of beef. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 59:207–214.
Smith, G.C., J.W. Savell, J.B. Morgan, and T.H. Montgomery. 2000a. Final report of the national beef quality audit—2000: Improving the quality, consistency, competitiveness and marketshare of fed-beef. Natl. Cattlemen’s Beef Assoc., Centennial, CO.
Smith, G.C., J. Tatum, K. Belk, and J. Scanga. 2005a. Beef carcass quality and yield grading in the USA, Canada and Australia. II Jornada Tecnica de la Fundación ANETIF, Mexico City, 13–14 June 2005, 1–8.
Smith, G.C., J.W. Savell, J.B. Morgan, and T.E. Lawrence. 2005b. Final report of the National Beef Quality Audit—2005: A new benchmark for the U.S. Beef Industry. Natl. Cattlemen’s Beef Assoc., Centennial, CO.
Smith, G.C., D.L. Pendell, J.D. Tatum, K.E. Belk, and J.N. Sofos. 2008b. Post-slaughter traceability. Meat Sci. 80:66–74.
Smith, G.C., J.W. Savell, H.R. Cross, Z.L. Carpenter, C.E. Murphey, and J.L. Aalhus. 1987. Relationship of USDA quality grades to palatability of cooked beef. J. Food Qual. 10:269−286.
Smith, G.C., J.W. Savell, H.G. Dolezoll, T.G. Field, D.R. Gill, and D.B. Griffin. 1995. Improving the quality, consistency, competitiveness, and market share of beef: the final report of the second blueprint for total quality management in the fed-beef (slaughter steer/heifer) industry. Natl Beef Quality Audit-1995.
Smith, G.C., J.D. Tatum, K.E. Belk, J.A. Scanga, T. Grandin, and J.N. Sofos. 2005c. Tracability from a U.S. perspective. Meat Sci. 71:174–193.
Smith, G.C., Z.L. Carpenter, H.R. Cross, C.E. Murphey, H.C. Abraham, J.W. Savell, G.W. Davis, B.W. Berry, and F.C. Parrish, Jr. 1985. Relationship of USDAmarbling groups to palatability of cooked beef. J. Food Qual. 7:289–308.
Smith, G.C., J.W. Savell, R.P. Clayton, T.G. Field, D.B. Griffin, D.S. Hale, M.F. Miller, T.H. Montgomery, J.B. Morgan, J.D. Tatum, and J.W. Wise. 1992. Improving the consistency and competitiveness of beef. The final report of the national beef quality audit-1991. Natl Cattlemen’s Beef Assn., Englewood, CO.
Smith, K.R. 2002. Competitive disparities for U.S. pork in export markets. (M.S. Thesis). Colorado State University Libraries.
Smith, K.R., S.K. Duckett, M.J. Azain, R.N. Sonon Jr., and T.D. Pringle. 2007. The effect of anabolic implants on intramuscular lipid deposition in finished beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85:430–440.
Smith, R.D., K.L. Nicholson, J.D.W. Nicholson, K.B. Harris, R.K. Miller, D.B. Griffin, and J.W. Savell. 2008c. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer palatability evaluations of steaks from US Choice and US Select short loins. Meat Sci. 79:631–639.
Smith, S.B., and J.D. Crouse. 1984. Relative contributions of acetate, lactate and glucose to lipogenesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue. J. Nutr. 114:792–800.
Smith, S.B., A. Yang, T.W, Larsen, and R.K. Tume. 1998a. Positional analysis of triacylglycerols from bovine adipose tissue lipids varying in degree of unsaturation. Lipids. 33:197-207.
Smith, S.B., D.K. Lunt, and M. Zembayashi. 2000b. Intramuscular fat deposition: the physiological process and the potential for its manipulation. Proc. 2000 Plains Nutr. Council.
Smith, S.B., C.A. Gill, D.K. Lunt, and M.A. Brooks. 2009a. Regulation of fat and fatty acid composition in beef cattle. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 22:1225–1233.
Smith, S.B., K.C. Lin, J.J. Wilson, D.K. Lunt, and H.R. Cross. 1998b. Starvation depresses acylglycerol biosynthesis in bovine subcutaneous but not intramuscular adipose tissue homogenates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 120B:165–174.
Smith, S.B., D.K. Lunt, K.Y. Chung, C.B. Choi, R.K. Tume, and M. Zembayashi. 2006. Adiposity, fatty acid composition, and delta-9 desaturase activity during growth in beef cattle. Anim. Sci. J. 77:478–486.
Smith, S.B., H. Kawachi, C.B. Choi, C.W. Choi, G. Wu, and J.E. Sawyer. 2009b. Cellular regulation of bovine intramuscular adipose tissue development and composition. J. Anim. Sci. 87:E72–E82.
Smith, S.H.,and M.D. Judge. 1991. Relationship between pyridinoline concentration and thermal stability of bovine intramuscular collagen. J. Anim. Sci. 69:1989-1993.
Smith, T.P.L., N.L. Lopez-Corrales, S.M. Kappes, and T.S. Sonstegard. 1997. Myostatin maps to the interval containing the bovine mh locus. Mam. Gen. 8:742–744.
Smith, T.P.L., E. Casas, C.E. Rexroad III, S.M. Kappes, and J.W. Keele. 2000c. Bovine CAPN1 maps to a region of BTA29 containing a quantitative trait locus for meat tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2589-2594.
Smulders, F.J.M., J. Hiesberger, P. Hofbauer, B. Dogl, and E. Dransfield. 2006. Modifiedatmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2456–2462.
Snowder, G.D., L.D. Van Fleck, L.V. Cundiff, G.L. Bennett, M. Koohmaraie, and M.E. Dikeman. 2007. Bovine respiratory disease in feedyard cattle: Phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations with growth, carcass, and longissimus muscle palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1885–1892.
Sola-Penna, M., D. Da Silva, W. S. Coelho, M. M. Marinho-Carvalho, and P. Zancan. 2010. Regulation of mammalian muscle type 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and its implication for the control of the metabolism. IUBMB Life 62:791–796.
Sørheim, O., J. Idland, E.C. Halvorsen, T. Frùystein, P. Lea, and K.I. Hildrum. 2001. Influence of beef carcass stretching and chilling rate on tenderness of m. longissimus dorsi. Meat Sci. 57:79-85.
Sorimachi, H., S. Imajoh-Ohmi, Y. Emori, H. Kawasaki, S. Ohno, Y. Minami, and K. Suzuki. 1989. Molecular cloning of a novel mammalian calcium-dependent protease distinct from both m- and mu-types. Specific expression of the mRNA in skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 264:20106–20111.
Soti, C., A.S. Sreedhar, and P. Csermely. 2003. Apoptosis, necrosis and cellular senescence: Chaperone occupancy as a potential switch. Aging Cell 2:39–45.
Spanheimer, R., T. Zlatev, G. Umpierrez, and M. DiGirolamo. 1991. Collagen production in fasted and food-restricted rats: response to duration and severity of food deprivation. J. Nutr. 121:518-524.
Spanier, A.M., K.W. McMillin, and J.A. Miller. 1990. Enzyme activity levels in beef: Effects of postmortem aging and endpoint temperature. J. Food Sci. 55: 318-322.
Spanier, A.M., M. Flores, K.W. McMillin, and T.D. Bidner. 1997. The effect of postmortem aging on meat flavour quality in Brangus beef. Correlation of treatments, sensory, instrumental and chemical descriptors. Food Chem. 59:531–538.
Spanier, A.M., M. Flores, F. Toldra, M.C. Aristoy, K.L. Bett, P. Bysticky, et. al. 2004. Meat flavor: contribution of proteins and peptides to the flavor of beef. Adv. Exp. Med. Bio. 542:33–49.
Specht, K., and W. Baltes. 1994. Identification of volatile flavor compounds with high aroma values from shallow-fried beef. J. Agr. Food Chem. 42:2246–2253.
Spiegelman, B.M., and J.S. Flier. 1996. Adipogenesis and obesity: Rounding out the big picture. Cell 87:377–389.
Splan, R.K., L.V. Cundiff, M.E. Dikeman, and L.D. VanVleck. 2002. Estimates of parameters between direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in crossbred cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:857-863.
Sporing, S. 1999. Escherichia coli O157:H7 risk assessment for production and cooking of blade tenderized beef steaks. MS Thesis. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.
Sprinkle, J.E., C.L. Ferrell, J.W. Holloway, B.G. Warrington, L.W. Greene, G. Wu, and J.W. Stuth. 1998. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat. J. Anim. Sci. 76:665-673.
Srinivasan, S., and H.O. Hultin. 1997. Chemical, physical, and functional properties of cod proteins modified by a nonenzymic free-radical-generating system. J. Agr. Food Chem. 45:310–320.
Starkey, C.P., H. Geert, V. Geesink, H. Oddy, D.L. Hopkins. 2015. Explaining the variation in lamblongissimus shear force across andwithin aging periods using protein degradation, sarcomere length and collagen characteristics. Meat Sci. 105:32–37.
Steinhart, H., A. Bosselmann, and C. Möller. 1994. Determination of pyridinolines in bovine collagenous tissues. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1943–1947.
Stetzer, A.J., K. Cadwallader, T.K. Singh, F.K. McKeith, and M.S. Brewer. 2008. Effect of enhancement and aging on flavor and volatile compounds in various beef muscles. Meat Sci. 79:13–19.
Sullivan, G.A., and C.R. Calkins. 2011. Ranking beef muscles from Warner–Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel ratings from published literature. J. Food Qual. 34:195–203.
Stockton, M.C., R.K. Wilson, D.M. Feuz, L.A. Stalker, and R.N. Funston. 2013. Using measurable physical characteristics to forecast beef heifer maturity: The identification of a maturity index. J. Anim. Sci. 2013.91:4462–4468.
Stokoe, D., K. Engel, D.G. Campbell, P. Cohen, and M. Gaestel. 1992. Identification of MAPKAP kinase 2 as a major enzyme responsible for the phosphorylation of the small mammalian heat shock proteins. FEBS Letters 313:307–313.
Strandine, E.J., C.H. Koonz, and J.M. Ramsbottom. 1949. A study of variation inmuscles of beef and chicken. J. Anim. Sci. 8:483–494.
Strange, E. D., R.C. Benedict, R.E. Gugger, V.G. Metzger, and C.E. Swift. 1974. Simplified methodology for measuring meat color. J. Food Sci. 39:988-992.
Strydom, P.E. 2008. Review: Do indigenous Southern African cattle breeds have the right genetics for commercial production of quality meat? Meat Sci. 80: 86–93.
Strydom, P.E., and L. Frylinck. 2005. The effect of genotype, duration of feed withdrawal and electrical stimulation on meat quality. In Proceedings of the 51stInternational Congress of Meat Science and Technology. pp. 1745–1750, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Strydom, P.E., R.T. Naudé, M.M. Scholtz, and J.B. Van Wyk. 2000. Characterisation of indigenous cattle breeds in relation to meat quality traits. Meat Sci. 55:79–88.
Strydom, P. E., L. Frylinck, J. Van der Westhuizen, and H.M. Burrow. 2008. Growth performance, feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality of tropically adapted breed types from different farming systems in South Africa. Aust. J. Exper. Agri. 48: 599–607.
Stuby,M.A., J.W. Lamkey, and H.G. Dolezol. 1993. The effect of freezing on aging of beef. Research Report, Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta., Stillwater. pp 55-59.
Sugiyama, Y., A. Suzuki, M. Kishikawa, R. Akutsu, T. Hirose, M.M. Waye, S.K. Tsui, S. Yoshida, and S. Ohno. 2000. Muscle develops a specific form of small heat shock protein complex composed of MKBP/HSPB2 and HSPB3 during myogenic differentiation. J. Biol. Chem. 275:1095–1104.
Sullivan, G.A., and C.R. Calkins. 2011. Ranking beef muscles from Warner–Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel ratings from published literature. J. Food Qual. 34:195–203.
Suman S.P., and P. Joseph. 2011 Proteomics of meat color. In: Association 1303 AMS, editor. 64th Ann. Recipr. Meat Conf. 2011.
Suman, S.P., C. Faustman, S.L. Stamer, and D.C. Liebler. 2007. Proteomics of lipid oxidation‐ induced oxidation of porcine and bovine oxymyoglobins. Proteomics, 7:628–640.
Suman, S.P., M.C. Hunt, M.N. Nair, and G. Rentfrow. 2014. Improving beef color stability: Practical strategies and underlying mechanisms. Meat Sci. 98:490–504.
Sun, X.D., and R.A. Holley. 2010. High hydrostatic pressure effects on the texture of meat and meat products. J. Food Sci. 75:R17–R23.
Sun, Y., and T.H. MacRae. 2005a. The small heat shock proteins and their role in human disease. FEBS J. 272:2613–2627.
Sun, Y., and T.H. MacRae. 2005b. Small heat shock proteins: Molecular structure and chaperone function. Cell. Molec. Life Sci. 62:2460–2476.
Suwandy, V., A. Carne, R. van de Ven, A. El-Din, A. Bekhit, D.L. Hopkins. 2015. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-bonedmuscles of different potential tenderness Meat Sci. 105:25–31.
Suzuki, J. and M.E. Bailey. 1985. Direct sampling capillary GLC analysis of flavor volatiles from ovine. Food Chem. 33: 343-347.
Suzuki, K., H. Sorimachi, T. Yoshizawa, K. Kinbara, and S. Ishiura. 1995. Calpain: novel family members, activation and physiological function. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 376:523–529.
Swanek, S.S., J.B. Morgan, F.N. Owens, D.R. Gill, C.A. Strasia, H.G. Dolezal, and F.K. Ray. 1999. Vitamin D3 supplementation of beef steers increases longissimus tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 77:874–881.
Swanson, J.C., and J. Morrow-Tesch. 2001. Cattle transport: Historical, research, and future perspectives. J. Anim. Sci. 79:E102–E109.
Swatland, H.J. 1989. A review of meat spectrophotometry (300 to 800 nm). Can. Inst. Food Sci. Tech. 22:390-402.
Swatland, H.J. 2010. Review: Meat products and consumption culture in the West. Meat Sci. 86:80–85.
Sweeter, K.K., D.M. Wulf, and R.J. Maddock. 2005. Determining the optimum beef longissimus muscle size for retail consumers. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2598–2604.
Sylvestre, M.N., D. Balcerzak, C. Feidt, V. E. Baracos, and J.B. Bellut. 2002. Elevated rate of collagen solubilization and postmortem degradation in muscles of lambs with high growth rates: Possible relationship with activity of matrix metalloproteinases. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1871–1878.
Taga, H., M. Bonnet, B. Picard, M.C. Zingaretti, I. Cassar-Malek, S. Cinti, and Y. Chilliard. 2011. Adipocytemetabolismand cellularity are related to differences in adipose tissue maturity between Holstein and Charolais or Blond d’Aquitaine fetuses. J. Anim. Sci. 89:711–721.
Taga, H., Y. Chilliard, B. Meunier, C. Chambon, B. Picard, M.C. Zingaretti., et. al. 2012. Cellular and molecular large-scale features of fetal adipose tissue: Is bovine perirenal adipose tissue brown? J. Cell. Physiol. 2271688–1700.
Taghizadeh, M., A. Gowen, and C. O’Donnell. 2009. Prediction of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) moisture content using hyperspectral imaging. Sens. Instrumentation for Food Qual. and Safety, 3:219–226.
Tait, R.G. Jr., S.D. Shackelford, T.L. Wheeler, D.A. King, E. Casas, R.M. Thallman, T.P.L. Smith, and G.L. Bennett. 2014. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies. J. Anim. Sci. 92:456–466.
Tait, S.W., and D.R. Green. 2010. Mitochondria and cell death: Outer membrane permeabilization and beyond. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 11:621–632.
Takahaski, E., T. Matsui, S. Wakamatsu, N. Yuri, Y. Shiojiri, R. Matsuyama, H. Murakami, S. Tanaka, S. Torii, and H. Yano. 1999. Serum vitamin C concentration in fattening and fattened beef cattle. Anim. Sci. J. 70:119–122.
Takakura, Y., T. Sakamoto, S. Hirai, T. Masuzawa, H. Wakabayashi, and T. Nishimura. 2014. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis. Meat Sci. 97:27–31.
Talamo F, C. D’Ambrosio, S. Arena, P. Del Vecchio, L. Ledda, G. Zehender et al. 2003. Proteins from bovine tissues and biological fluids: defining a reference electrophoresis map for liver, kidney, muscle, plasma and red blood cells. Proteomics 3:440-460.
Tang, J., C. Faustman, S. Lee, and T.A. Hoagland. 2003. Effect of glutathione on oxymyoglobin oxidation. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 51:1691–1695.
Tang, J., C. Faustman, R.A. Mancini, M. Seyfert, and M.C. Hunt. 2005a. Mitochondrial reduction of metmyoglobin: Dependence on the electron transport chain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:5449–5455.
Tang, J., C. Faustman, T.A. Hoagland, R.A. Mancini, M. Seyfert, and M.C. Hunt. 2005b. Postmortem oxygen consumption by mitochondria and its effects on myoglobin form and stability. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:1223–1230.
Tang, J., C. Faustman, T.A. Hoagland, R.A. Mancini, M. Seyfert, and M.C. Hunt. 2005c. Interactions between mitochondrial lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation and the effects of vitamin E. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:6073–6079.
Tapp, W.N., J.W.S. Yancey, and J.K. Apple. 2011. How is the instrumental color of meat measured? Meat Sci. 89:1–5.
Tarladgis, B.G., B.M. Watts, N.T. Younathan, and L. Dugan. 1960. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 37:44048.
Tarrant, P.V. 1989a. Animal behaviour and environment in the dark cutting condition in beef—a review. Irish J. Food Sci. and Tech. 13:1–21.
Tarrant, P. V. 1990. Transportation of cattle by road. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 28:153–170.
Tatum, D. 2012. Beef Grading. Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado. Available at www.beefresearch.org/CMDocs/BeefResearch/Beef%20Grading.pdf
Tatum, J.D. 1981. Is tenderness nutritionally controlled? Reciprical Meat Conference. 34:65-67.
Tatum, J.D., K.W. Gronewald, S.C. Seideman, and W.D. Lamm. 1990. Composition and quality of beef from steers sired by piedmontese, gelbvieh and red angus bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1049−1160.
Tatum, J.D., K.E. Belk, M.H. George, and G.C. Smith. 1999. Identification of quality management practices to reduce the incidence of retail beef tenderness problems: Development and evaluation of a prototype quality system to produce tender beef. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2112−2118.
Tatum, J.D., K.E. Belk, T.G. Field, J.A. Scanga, and G.C. Smith. 2006. Relative importance of weight, quality grade, and yield grade as drivers of beef carcass value in two grid-pricing systems. Prof. Anim. Sci. 22:41–47.
Taylor, R.G.and L. Frylinck. 2003. Muscle structures which determine meat tenderness in South African and other beef breeds. In Consistency of Quality: Proceed. 11th Int.l Meat Symp. pp. 3–13, Centurion, South Africa.
Taylor, R.P., and I.J. Benjamin. 2005. Small heat shock proteins: A new classification scheme in mammals. J. Molec. and Cell. Cardiology 38:433–444.
Taylor, R.G., G.H. Geesink, V.F. Thompson, M. Koohmaraie, and D.E. Goll. 1995. Is Z disk degradation responsible for postmortem tenderization? J. Anim. Sci. 73:1351−1367.
Te Pas M.F., J. Jansen, K.C. Broekman, H. Reimert, and H.C. Heuven. 2009. Postmortem proteome degradation profiles of longissimus muscle in Yorkshire and Duroc pigs and their relationship with pork quality traits. Meat Sci. 83:744-751.
Thaller, G., C. Kuhn, A. Winter, G. Ewald, O. Bellman, J. Wegner, H. Zuhlke, and R. Fries. 2003. DGAT1, a new positional and functional candidate gene for intramuscular fat deposition in cattle. Anim. Genet. 34:354–357.
Therkildsen, M. 2005. Muscle protein degradation in bull calves with compensatory growth. Livest. Prod. Sci. 98:205–218.
Thiansilakul, Y., S. Benjakul, and F. Shahidi. 2007. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate from round scad muscle using alcalase and flavourzyme. J. Food Biochem. 31:266–287.
Thompson, C.B. 1995. Apoptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of disease. Sci. 267:1456–1462.
Thompson, J. 2002. Managing meat tenderness. Meat Sci. 62:295–308.
Thompson, J., R. Polkinghorne, A. Gee, D. Motiang, P. Strydom, M. Mashau, J. Ng’ambi, R.deKock, and H. Burrow. 2010. Beef palatability in the Republic of South Africa: Implications for niche-marketing strategies. ACIAR Tech. Rpt. 72Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Thompson, J., R. Polkinghorne, H. Hearnshaw, and D. Ferguson. 1999a. Meat Standards Australia, A ‘PACCP’ based beef grading scheme for consumers. 2) PACCP requirements which apply to the production sector. 45th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. and Tech., Yokohama, Japan, 45, 16–17.
Thompson, J.M. 2004. The effects of marbling on flavour and juiciness scores of cooked beef, after adjusting to a constant tenderness. Austr. J. Exp. Agr. 44:645–652.
Thompson, J.M., D. Perry, B. Daly, G.E. Gardner, D.J. Johnston, and D.W. Pethick. 2006. Genetic and environmental effects on the muscle structure response post-mortem. Meat Sci. 74:59−65.
Thompson, J.M., R. Polkinghorne, I.H. Hwang, A.M. Gee, S.H. Cho, B.Y. Park, and J.M. Lee. 2008. Beef quality grades as determined by Korean and Australian consumers. Austr. J. Experim. Agr. 48:1380–1386.
Thornberry, N.A., and Y. Lazebnik. 1998. Caspases: Enemies within. Science 281:1312–1316.
Tian, Y.Q., D.G. McCall, W. Dripps, Q. Yu, and P. Gong. 2005. Using computer vision technology to evaluate the meat tenderness of grazing beef. Food Aust. 57:322–326.
Tidball, J.G. 2005. Inflammatory processes in muscle injury and repair. Amer. J. Physiol. — Reg. Integrative Comparative Physiol. 288:R345–R353.
Timsit, E.B., H. Seegers, A. Lehebel, and S. Assie. 2011. Visually undetected fever episodes in newly received beef bulls at a fattening operation: Occurrence, duration, and impact on performance. J. Anim. Sci. 89:4272–4280.
Tiwari, B.K. 2015. Ultrasound: A clean, green extraction technology. Trends in Anal. Chem. 71:100–109.
Toldrá, F., and M. Flores. 2000. The use of muscle enzymes as predictors of porkmeat quality. Food Chem. 69:387–395.
Tong, J., M.J. Zhu, K.R. Underwood, B.W. Hess, S.P. Ford, and M. Du. 2008. AMP activated protein kinase and adipogenesis in sheep fetal skeletal muscle and 3T3-L1 cells. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1296−1305.
Tong, J.F., X. Yan, J.X. Zhao, M.J. Zhu, P.W. Nathanielsz, and M. Du. 2011. Metformin mitigates the impaired development of skeletal muscle in the offspring of obese mice. Nutr. Diabetes 1:7.
Torii, S., M. Ohyama, T. Matsui, and H. Yano. 1998. Ascorbic acid-2-phosphate enhances adipocyte differentiation of cultured stromal vascular cells prepared from bovine perirenal adipose tissue. Anim. Sci. J. 69:439–444.
Tornberg, E. 1996. Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness. Meat Sci. 43:175–191.
Tornberg, E. 2005. Effects of heat on meat proteins. Implications on structure and quality of meat products. Meat Science, 70, 493–508.
Torrescano, G., A. Sanchez-Escalante, B. Gimenez, P. Roncales, and J.A. Beltran. 2003. Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics. Meat Sci. 64:85–91.
Toyomizu, M., M. Kikusato, Y. Kawabata, M.A. Azad, E. Inui, and T. Amo. 2011. Meat-type chickens have a higher efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation than laying-type chickens. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 15975-125981.
Trinderup, C.H., and Y.H.B, Kim. 2015. Fresh meat color evaluation using a structured light imaging system. Food Res. Intl. 71:100–107.
Troy, D. J., and J.P. Kerry. 2010. Consumer perception and the role of science in the meat industry. Meat Sci. 86:214–226.
Tume, R.K. 2004. The effect of environmental factors on fatty acid composition and the assessment of marbling in beef cattle: A review. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44:663–668.
Turner, S.P., E.A. Navajas, J.J. Hyslop, D.W. Ross, R.I. Richardson, N. Prieto, M. Bell, M.C. Jack, and R. Roehe. 2011. Associations between response to handling and growth and meat quality in frequently handled Bos taurus beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 2011. 89:4239–4248.
Tytell, M., and P.L. Hooper. 2001. Heat shock proteins: new keys to the development of cytoprotective therapies. Expert Opinion Therapeutic Targets 5:267–287.
Underwood, K.R., J.F. Tong, P.L. Price, A.J. Roberts, E.E. Grings, B.W. Hess, W.J. Means, and M. Du. 2010. Nutrition during mid to late gestation affects growth, adipose tissue deposition, and tenderness in cross-bred beef steers. Meat Sci. 86:588–593.
Unruh, J.A., D.G. Gray, and M.E. Dikeman. 1986. Implanting young bulls with zeranol from birth to four slaughter ages: II Carcass quality, palatability and muscle collagen characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 62:388-398.
Uruh, J.A., X. Kastner, D.H. Kropf, M.E., Dikeman, M.E., and M.C. Hunt. 1986. Effects of low voltage electrical stimulation during exsanguination on meat quality and display color stability. Meat Sci. 18:281–293.
USDA. 1996. Standards for grades of slaughter cattle and standards for grades of carcass beef. Agricultural Marketing Services, USDA. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Uytterhaegen, L., E. Claeys, D. Demeyer, M. Lippens, L.O. Fiems, C.Y. Boucque´, G. Van de Voorde, and A. Bastiaens. 1994. Effects of double-muscling on carcass quality, beef tenderness and myofibrillar protein degradation in Belgian Blue White bulls. Meat Sci. 38:255−267.
Vallée, A., J. Daures, J.A.M. van Arendonk, and H. Bovenhuis. 2016. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in Charolais beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2307–2316.
Van Ba, H., I. Hwang, D. Jeong, and A. Touseef. 2012. Principle of meat aroma flavors and future prospect. In Isin Akyar (Ed.), Latest research into quality control, pp. 145–176. Rijeka Croatia: InTech.
van der Westhuyzen, D.R., K. Matsumoto, and J.D. Etlinger. 1981. Easily releasable myofilaments from skeletal and cardiac muscles maintained in vitro. Role in myofibrillar assembly and turnover. J. Biol. Chem. 256:11791–11797.
Van Donkersgoed, J., G. Royan, J. Berg, J. Hutcheson, and M. Brown. 2011. Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and longissimus tenderness of feedyard heifers fed barley-based diets. Prof. Anim. Sci. 27:116–121.
Van Donkersgoed, J., G. Jewison, S. Bygrove, K. Gillis, D. Malchow, and G. McLeod. 2001. Canadian beef quality audit 1998–99. Can. Vet. J. 42:121–126.
Van Donkersgoed, J., G. Jewison, M. Mann, B. Cherry, B. Altwasser, R. Lower, K. Wiggins, R. Dejonge, B. Thorlakson, E. Moss, C. Mills, and H. Grogan. 1997. Canadian beef quality audit. Can. Vet. J. 38:217–225.
Van Eenennaam, A.L., J. Li, R.M. Thallman, R.L. Quaas, M.E. Dikeman, C.A. Gill, D.E. Franke, and M.G. Thomas. 2007. Validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits. J. Anim. Sci. 85:891–900.
Van Montfort, R., C. Slingsby, and E. Vierling. 2001. Structure and function of the small heat shock protein/α-crystallin family of molecular chaperones, Vol. 59. pp. 105–156.
Van Wezemael, L., Ø.Ueland, R. Rødbotten,S. De Smet, J. Scholderer, and W. Verbeke. 2012. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef. Meat Sci. 90:444–450.
Vanderwert, W., L. L. Berger, F. K. McKeith, A. M. Baker, H. W. Gonyou and P. J. Bechtel. 1985. Influence of zeranol implants on growth, behav ior, and carcass traits in Angus and Limousin bulls and steers. J. Anita. Sci. 61:310.
VanOverbeke, D.L., G.G. Hilton, J. Green, M. Hunt, C. Brooks, J. Killefer, M.N. Streeter, J.P. Hutcheson, W.T. Nichols, D.M. Allen, and D.A. Yates. 2009. Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of beef steers and calf-fed Holstein steers on the color stability of top sirloin butt steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3669–3676.
Vasta, V., and A. Priolo. 2006. Ruminant fat volatiles as affected by diet. A review. Meat Sci. 73: 218-228.
Vasta, V., A. Nudda, A. Cannas, M. Lanza, and A. Priolo. 2008. Alternative feed resources and their effects on the quality of meat and milk from small ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 147:223–246.
Vatansever, L., E.M. Kurt, G.R. Enser, N.D. Nute, J.D. Scollan, J.D. Wood, and R.I. Richardson. 2000. Shelf life and eating quality of beef from cattle of different breeds given diets differing in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. Br. Soc. Anim. Sci. 71:471–482.
Vaz, R.Z., J. Restle, R.Z. Vaz, I.L. Brondani, R.A.C. Bernardes, and C. Faturi. 2002. Efeitos de raça e heterose na composição física da carcaça e qualidade da carne de novilhos da primeira geração de cruzamento entre Charolês e Nelore. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 31:376–386.
Vázquez-Araújo, L., E. Chambers IV, K. Adhikari, G. Hough, A.A. Carbonell-Barrachina. 2013. Influence of various traditional seasonings on beef flavor: United States, Spanish, and Argentinian practices. Meat Sci. 93:61–66.
Velarde, A., M. Gispert, A. Diestre and X. Manteca. 2003. Effect of electrical stunning on meat and carcass quality in lambs. Meat Sci. 63:35–38.
Velioglu, Y.S., G. Mazza, L. Gao, and B.D. Oomah. 1998. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:4113–4117.
Velleman, S.G. 2002. Role of the extracellularmatrix inmuscle growth and development. J. Anim. Sci. 80:E8–E13.
Velleman, S.G. 2012. Meat science and muscle biology: Extracellular matrix regulation of skeletal muscle formation. J. Anim. Sci. 90:936–941.
Verbeke, W., and I. Vackier. 2004. Profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat. Meat Sci. 67:159–168.
Verbeke, W., R.W. Ward, and T. Avermaete. 2002. Evaluation of publicity measures relating to the EU beef labeling system in Belgium. Food Policy 24:339–353.
Verbeke, W., F.J.A. Perez-Cueto, M.D. de Barcellos, A. Krystallis, and K.G. Grunert. 2010a. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork. Meat Sci. 84:284–292.
Verbeke, W., L. Van Wezemael, M.D. de Barcellos, J.O. Kugler, J.F. Hocquette, O. Ueland, and K.G. Grunert. 2010b. European beef consumers’ interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Insights from a qualitative study in four EU countries. Appetite 54:289–296.
Vergara, and L. Gallego. 2000. Effect of electrical stunning on meat quality of lamb. Meat Sci. 56:345–349.
Vestergaard, M., N. Oksbjerg, and P. Henckel. 2000. Influence of feeding intensity, grazing and finishing feeding on muscle fiber characteristics and meat color of semitendinosus, longissimus dorsi and supraspinatus muscles of young bulls. Meat Sci. 54:177–185.
Vestergaard, M., M. Therkildsen, P. Henckel, L.R. Jensen, H.R. Andersen, and K. Sejrsen. 2000. Influence of feeding intensity, grazing and finishing feeding on meat and eating quality of young bulls and the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics, fiber fragmentation and meat tenderness. Meat Sc. 54:187–195.
Vieira, C., M.T. Diaz, B. Martínez, and M.D. García-Cachán. 2009. Effect of frozen storage conditions (temperature and length of storage) on microbiological and sensory quality of rustic crossbred beef at different states of aging. Meat Sci. 83:398–404.
Villarreal, E.L., L.M. Melucci, and C.A. Mezzadra. 2006. Genetic components for slaughter and meat quality traits in the Angus–Hereford crossing. Proc. 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Vitale,M., M. Pérez-Juan, E. Lloret, J. Arnau, and C.E. Realini. 2014. Effect of aging time in vacuum on tenderness, and color and lipid stability of beef from mature cows during display in high oxygen atmosphere package. Meat Sci. 96:270–277.
Voges, K.L., C.L. Mason, J.C. Brooks, R.J. Delmore, D.B. Griffin, D.S. Hale, W.R. Henning, D.D. Johnson, C.L. Lorenzen, R.J. Maddock, R.K. Miller, J.B. Morgan, B.E. Baird, B.L. Gwartney, and J.F. Savell. 2007. National beef tenderness survey-2006: Assessment of Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory panel ratings for beef from US retail and foodservice establishments. Meat Sci. 77:357-364.
Voisenet, B.D., T. Grandin, S.F. O’Connor, J.D. Tatum, and M.J. Deesing. 1997a. Bos indicus-cross feedyard cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters. Meat Sci. 46:367–377.
Voisinet, B.D., T. Grandin, J.D. Tatum, S.F. O’Connor, and J.J. Struthers. 1997b. Feedyard cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments. J. Anim. Sci. 75:892–896.
Von Borell, E. H. 2001. The biology of stress and its application to livestock housing and transportation assessment. J. Anim. Sci. 79:E260–E267.
von Nandelstadh, P., M. Ismail, C. Gardin, H. Suila, I. Zara, A. Belgrano et al. 2009. A class III PDZ binding motif in the myotilin and FATZ families binds enigma family proteins: common link for Z-disc myopathies. Mol. Cell Biol. 29:822-834.
Vote, D.J., K.E. Belk, J.D. Tatum, J.A. Scanga, et. al. 2003. Online prediction of beef tendewrness using a computer vision system equipped with a BeefCam module. J. Anim. Sci. 81:457-465.
Waldman, R.C., G.G. Suess, and V.H. Brungardt. 1968. Fatty acids of certain bovine tissue and their association with growth, carcass and palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 27:632–635.
Walsh, T. P., C. J. Masters, D. J. Morton, and F. M. Clarke. 1981. The reversible binding of glycolytic enzymes in ovine skeletal muscle in response to titanic stimulation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 675:29–39
Walshe, B. E., E.M. Sheehan, C.M. Delahunty, P.A. Morrissey, and J.P. Kerry. 2006. Composition, sensory and shelf life stability analyses of longissimus dorsi muscle from steers reared under organic and conventional production systems. Meat Sci. 73:319–325.
Wang, B, Q. Yang, C.L. Harris, M.L. Nelson, J.R. Busboom, M.J. Zhu, M. Du. 2016. Nutrigenomic regulation of adipose tissue development—role of retinoic acid: A review Meat Sci. 120:100–106.
Wang, K., and A. Spector. 2001. ATP causes small heat shock proteins to release denatured protein. Europ. J. Biochem. 268:6335–6345.
Wang, L., S. Xu, J.E. Lee, A. Baldridge, S. Grullon, W. Peng, and K. Ge. 2013. Histone H3K9 methyltransferase G9a represses PPARgamma expression and adipogenesis. EMBO J. 32:45–59.
Wang, Y.H., K.A. Byrne, A. Reverter, G.S. Harper, M. Taniguchi, S.M. McWilliam, and S.A. Lehnert. 2005. Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle tissue from two breeds of cattle. Mamm. Genome 16:201–210.
Wang, Y. H., N.I. Bower, A. Reverter, S.H. Tan, N. De Jager, R. Wang, and S.A.. Lehnert. 2009. Gene expression patterns during intramuscular fat development in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 87:119–130.
Ward, A.K., J.J. McKinnon, S., Hendrick, and F.C. Buchanan. 2012. The impact of vitamin A restriction and ADH1C genotype on marbling in feedyard steers. J. Anim. Sci. 90:2476–2483.
Warner, R.D., P.J. Walker, G.A. Eldridge, and J.L. Barnett. 1998. Effects of marketing procedureand liveweight change prior to slaughter on beef carcass and meat quality. Proc. Austr. Soc. Anim. Prod. 22:165–168.
Warner, R.D., A.E.D. McDonnell, J. Bekhit, R. Claus, A. Vaskoska, A. Sikes, F.R. Dunshea, and M. Ha. 2017. Systematic review of emerging and innovative technologies for meat tenderization. Meat Sci. 32:72-89.
Warner, R.D., F.R. Dunshea, E.N. Ponnampalam, G.E. Gardner, K.M. Martin, L. Salvatore, et al. 2006. Quality meat from Merinos. Intl. J. Sheep and Wool Sci. 54:48−53.
Warner, R.D., P.L. Greenwood, D.W. Pethick, D.M. Ferguson. 2010. Review: Genetic and environmental effects on meat quality. Meat Sci. 86:171–183.
Warren, H.E., N.D. Scollan, M. Enser, S.I. Hughes, R.I. Richardson, and J.D. Wood. 2008a. Effects of breed and a concentrate or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages. I: Animal performance, carcass quality and muscle fatty acid composition. Meat Sci. 78:256–269.
Warren, H.E., N.D. Scollan, G.R. Nute, S.I. Hughes, J.D. Wood, and R.I. Richardson. 2008b. Effects of breed and a concentrate or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages. II: Meat stability and flavour. Meat Sci. 78:270–278.
Warren, K.E., and C.L. Kastner. 1992. A comparison of dry-aged and vacuum-aged beef strip loins. J. Muscle Foods 3:151–157.
Warrington, B.G., J.W. Holloway, T.D.A. Forbes, C.M. Hensarling, P.E. Heinrich and N.C. Tipton. 2008. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles pf Longissimus muscle steaks from Bonsmara crossbred steers as compared with other beef available in retail markets. Beef Cattle Res. TX, Dept. Anim. Sci. Texas A&M Univ.
Watanabe, A., and C. Devine. 1996. Effect of meat ultimate pH on rate of titin and nebulin degradation. Meat Sci. 42:407–413.
Watanabe, A., C.C. Daly, and C.E. Devine. 1996. The effects of the ultimate pH of meat on tenderness changes during aging. Meat Sci. 42:67–78.
Watanabe, A., M. Imanari, M. Yonai,and N. Shiba. 2012. Effect of α-tocopherol n lactone formation in marbled beef and changes in lactone volatility during storage. J. Food Sci. 77:C627–C631.
Waterland, R.A., and R.L. Jirtle. 2003. Transposable elements: Targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation. Molec. Cell. Biol. 23:5293–5300.
Watkins, P.J., G. Kearney, G. Rose, D. Allen, A.J. Ball, D.W. Pethick, and R.D. Warner. 2014. Effect of branched-chain fatty acids, 3-methylindole and 4-methylphenol on consumer sensory scores of grilled lamb meat. Meat Sci. 96:1088–1094.
Watson, R., R. Polkinghorne, and J. Thompson. 2008. Development of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) prediction model for beef palatability. Austr. J. Exp. Agric. 48:1368–1379.
Watson, R., R. Polkinghorne, and J.M. Thompson. 2008. Development of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) prediction model for beef palatability. Austr. J. Exp. Agric. 48:1368–1379.
Watts, J.M., and J.M. Stookey. 2001. The propensity of cattle to vocalise during handling and isolation is affected by phenotype. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 74:81–95.
Waylan, A.T., J.D. Dunn, B.J. Johnson, J.P. Kayser, and E.K. Sisson. 2004. Effect of flax supplementation and growth promotants on lipoprotein lipase and glycogenin messenger RNA concentrations in finishing cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1868–1875.
Weaver, A.D., B.C. Bowker, and D.E. Gerrard. 2008. Sarcomere length influences postmortem proteolysis of excised bovine semitendinosus muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1925–1932.
Weaver, A.D., B.C. Bowker, and D.E. Gerrard. 2009. Sarcomere length influences μ-calpain-mediated proteolysis of bovine myofibrils. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2096–2103.
Webb, E.C., and H.A. O’Neill. 2008. The animal fat paradox and meat quality. Meat Sci. 80:28–36.
Webber, J.J., B. Dobrenov, J. Lloyd, and D. Jordan. 2012. Meat inspection in the Australian red-meat industries: Past, present and future. Austr. Vet. J. 90:363–369.
Wei, L.N. 2012. Chromatin remodeling and epigenetic regulation of the CrabpI gene in adipocyte differentiation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1821:206–212.
Welch, W.J. 1992. Mammalian stress response: Cell physiology, structure/function of stress proteins, and implications for medicine and disease. Physiol. Rev. 72:1063–1081.
Werkhoff, P., J. Brüning, R. Emberger, M. Güntert, M. Köpsel, W. Kuhn, et al. 1990. Isolation and characterization of volatile sulfur-containing meat flavor components in model systems. J. Sci. Food Agric. 38:777–791.
Westerling, D.B., and H.B. Hedrick. 1979. Fatty acid composition of bovine lipids as influenced by diet, sex and anatomical location and relationship to sensory characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 1343-1348.
Wheeler, T.L., and M. Koohmaraie. 1994. Prerigor and postrigor changes in tenderness of ovine longissimus muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1232-1238.
Wheeler, T.L., L.V. Cundiff, and R.M. Koch. 1994. Effect of marbling degree on beef palatability in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:3145-3151.
Wheeler, T.L., S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 1998. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2805–2810.
Wheeler, T.L., S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2000. Variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, collagen content, and tenderness among major pork muscles. J. Anim. Sci., 78:958–965.
Wheeler, T.L., L.V. Cundiff, R.M. Koch, and J.D. Crouse. 1996. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle IV): Carcass traits and longissimus palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1023–1035.
Wheeler, T.L., L.V. Cundiff, S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2001a. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): Carcass traits and longissimus palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1209–1222.
Wheeler, T.L., L.V. Cundiff, S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2004. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VI): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1177–1189.
Wheeler, T.L., L.V. Cundiff, S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2005. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VII): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 83:196–207.
Wheeler, T.L., L.V. Cundiff, S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2010. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 88:3070–3083.
Wheeler, T.L., G.W. Davis, J.R. Clark, C.B. Ramsey, and T.J. Rourke. 1989. Composition and palatability of early and late maturing beef breed types. J. Anim. Sci. 67:142–151.
Wheeler, T.L., J.W. Savell, H.R. Cross, D.K. Lunt, and S.B. Smith. 1990. Effect of postmortem treatments on the tenderness of meat from Hereford, Brahman and Brahman-cross beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3677–3686.
Wheeler, T.L., S.D. Shackelford, E. Casas, L.V. Cundiff, and M. Koohmaraie. 2001b. The effects of Piedmontese inheritance and myostatin genotype on the palatability of longissimus thoracis, gluteus medius, Semimembranosus, and biceps femoris. J. Anim. Sci. 79:3069–3074.
Wheeler, T.L., S.D. Shackleford, L.P. Johnson, M.F. Miller, R.K. Miller, and M. Koohmaraie. 1997. A comparison of Warner-Bratzler shear force assessments within and among instruments. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2423-2432.
Wheeler, T.L., D. Yates, J.M. Labeska, S.D. Shackleford, K.E. Belk, D.M. Wulf et. al. 2002. The efficacy of three objective systems for identifying beef cuts that can be guaranteed tender. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3315-3327.
Whipple, G., M. Koohmaraie, M.E. Dikeman, J.D. Crouse, M.C. Hunt, and R.D. Klemm. 1990. Evaluation of attributes that affect longissimus muscle tenderness in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 2716–2728.
White, S.N., E. Casas, M. F. Allan, J.W. Keele, W.M. Snelling, T.L. Wheeler, S.D. Shackelford, M. Koohmaraie, and T.P.L. Smith. 2007. Evaluation in beef cattle of six deoxyribonucleic acid markers developed for dairy traits reveals an osteopontin polymorphism associated with postweaning growth. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1–10.
White, S.N., E. Casas, T.L. Wheeler, S.D. Shackelford, M. Koohmaraie, D.G. Riley, C.C. Chase Jr., D.D. Johnson, J.W. Keele, and T.P.L. Smith. 2005. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2001–2008.
Wicklund, S.E., C. Homco-Ryan, K.J. Ryan, F.K. McKeith, B.J. McFarlane, and S.M. Brewer. 2005. Aging and enhancement effects on quality characteristics of beef strip steaks. J. Food Sci. 70:S242–S248.
Wiklund, E., M. Farouk, A. Stuart, P. Dobbie, D. Lomiwes, and D. Frost. 2009. Survey of current pH status in New Zealand bull beef. 55th Intl. Congr. Meat Sci. Tech. pp. 221–223.
Wittum, T.E., N.E. Woollen, L.J. Perino, and E.T. Littledike. 1996. Relationships among treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions evident at slaughter, and rate of weight gain in feedyard cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209:814–818.
Woerner, D.R., J.D. Tatum, T.E. Engle, K.E. Belk, and D.W. Couch. 2011. Effects of sequential implanting and ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation on carcass characteristics and longissimus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 89:201–209.
Wolfe, R.R. 2006. Skeletal Muscle Protein Metabolism and Resistance Exercise. J. Nutr. 136:325S-328S.
Wood, J.D., M. Enser, A.V. Fisher, G.R. Nute, R.I. Richardson, and P.R. Sheard. 1999. Manipulating meat quality and composition. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 58:363–370.
Wood, J.D., R.I. Richardson, G.R. Nute, A.V. Fisher, N.M. Campo, E. Kasapidiou, P.R. Sheard, and M. Enser. 2004. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 66:21-32.
Wood, J.D., M. Enser, A.V. Fisher, G.R. Nute, P.R. Sheard, R.I. Richardson, S.I. Hughes, and F.M. Whittington. 2008. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 78:343–358.
Worrell, M.A., D.C. Clanton, and C.R. Calkins. 1987. Effect of weight at castration on steer performance on the feedyard. J. Anim. Sci. 64:343–347.
Wu, G., M.M. Farouk, S. Clerens, and K. Rosenvold. 2014. Effect of beef ultimate pH and large structural protein changes with aging on meat tenderness. Meat Sci. 98:637–645.
Wu, H., and Y. Zhang. 2014 . Reversing DNA methylation: Mechanisms, genomics, and biological functions. Cell 156: 45–68.
Wu, J., Y. Peng, Y. Li, W. Wang, J. Chen, and S. Dhakal. 2012. Prediction of beef quality attributes using VIS/NIR hyperspectral scattering imaging technique. J. Food Eng. 109:267–273.
Wulf, D.M., and J.K. Page. 2000. Using measurements of muscle color, pH, and electrical impedence to augment the current USDA beef quality grading standards and improve the accuracy and precision of sorting carcasses into palatability groups. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 2595-2607.
Wulf, D.M., J.D. Tatum, R.D. Green, J.B. Morgan, B.L. Golden,and G.C. Smith. 1996. Genetic influences on beef longissimus palatability in Charolais- and Limousin-sired steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2394-2405.
Wulf, D.M., R.S Emnett, J.M. Leheska, and S.J. Moeller. 2002. Relationships among glycolytic potential, dark cutting (dark, firm, and dry) beef, and cooked beef palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 80: 1895-1903.
Wyle, A.M., D.J. Vote, D.L. Roeber, R.C. Cannell, K.E. Belk, J.A. Scanga, and G.C. Smith. 2003. Effectiveness of the SmartMV prototype BeefCam system to sort beef carcasses into expected palatability groups. J. Anim. Sci. 81:441–448.
Wythes, J.R., R.J. Arthur, P.J.M. Thompson, G.E. Williams, and J.H. Bond. 1981. Effects of transporting cows various distances on live weight, carcass traits and muscle pH. Austral. J. Exper. Agric. and Animal Husb. 21:557–561.
Wythes, J.R., W.R. Shorthose, P.J. Schmidt, and C.B. Davis. 1980. Effects of various rehydration procedures after a long journey on live weight, carcasses and muscle properties of cattle. Austral. J. Agric. Res. 31:849–855.
Xia, J., A. Weaver, D.E. Gerrard, and G. Yao. 2006. Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance. J. Biomed. Optics 11:040504.
Xia, J., E.P. Berg, J.W. Lee, and G. Yao. 2007. Characterizing beef muscles with optical scattering and absorption coefficients in VIS–NIR region. Meat Sci. 75:78–83.
Xiong, Y.L. 2004. Protein functionality. In W.K. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikeman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of meat sciences, pp. 218–242. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Academic Press.
Xiong, Y.L., D. Park, and T. Ooizumi. 2009. Variation in the cross-linking pattern of porcine myofibrillar protein exposed to three oxidative environments. J. Agr. Food Chem. 57:153–159.
Xiong, Y.L., S.P. Blanchard, T.Ooizumi, and Y. Ma. 2010. Hydroxyl radical and ferryl generating systems promote gel network formation of myofibrillar protein. J. Food Sci. 75:C215–C221.
Yamada, T., and N. Nakanishi. 2012. Effects of the roughage/concentrate ratio on the expression of angiogenic growth factors in adipose tissue of fattening Wagyu steers. Meat Sci. 90:807–813.
Yamaguchi, S., T. Yoshikawa, S. Ikeda, and T. Ninomiya. 1971. Measurement of the relative taste intensity of some L-α-amino acids and 5΄-nucleotides. J. Food Sci. 36:846–849.
Yan, X., Y. Huang, J.X. Zhao, N.M. Long, A.B. Uthlaut, M.J. Zhu et. al. 2011. Maternal obesity-impaired insulin signaling in sheep and induced lipid accumulation and fibrosis in skeletal muscle of offspring. Biol. of Reprod. 85:172–178.
Yan, X., M.J. Zhu, W. Xu, J.F. Tong, S.P. Ford, P.W. Nathanielsz, and M. Du. 2010. Upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappaB signaling is associated with enhanced adipogenesis and insulin resistance in fetal skeletal muscle of obese sheep at late gestation. Endo. 151:380–387.
Yanagihara, K., Y. Yano, T. Nakamura, H. Nakai, and R. Tanabe. 1995. Changes in sensory, physical and chemical properties of beef loins during prolonged conditioning at chilled temperature. Japanese Anim. Sci. Tech. 66:160–168.
Yancey, E.J., M.E. Dikeman, K.A. Hachmeister, E. Chambers IV, and G.A. Milliken. 2005. Flavor characterization of top-blade, top-sirloin, and tenderloin steaks as affected by pH, maturity, and marbling. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2618–2623.
Yang, A., M.C. Lanari, M. Brewster, and R.K. Tume. 2002. Lipid stability and meat color of beef from pasture- and grain-fed cattle with or without vitamin E supplement. Meat Sci. 60: 41–50.
Yang, H.S., E.J. Lee, S.H. Moon, H.D. Paik, and D.U. Ahn. 2011. Addition of garlic or onion before irradiation on lipid oxidation, volatiles and sensory characteristics of cooked ground beef. Meat Sci. 88:286–291.
Yang, Q.Y., J.F. Liang, C.J. Rogers, J.X. Zhao,M.J. Zhu, and M. Du. 2013. Maternal obesity induces epigenetic modifications to facilitate zfp423 expression and enhance adipogenic differentiation in fetal mice. Diabetes 62:3727–3735.
Yano, H. 2001. Improved method for meat quality. Japanese Patent No. 11122, granted 19 January 2001.
Yao, Y., L. Zhu, L. He, Y. Duan, W. Liang, Z. Nie et. al. 2015. A meta-analysis of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and obesity. Intl J. Clin. and Exper. Med. 8:14977–14984.
Ye, W.Z., A.F. Reis, D. Dubois-Laforgue, C. Bellanne-Chantelot, J. Timsit, and G. Velho. 2001. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity in type 2 diabetic subjects with early age of onset. Europ. J. Endo. 145:181–186.
Yin, C., and W. Cheng. 2003. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of four garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in ground beef. Meat Sci. 63:23–28.
Yoo, K.M., C.H. Lee, H. Lee, B. Moon, and C.Y. Lee. 2008. Relative antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of common herbs. Food Chem. 106:929–936.
Young, O.A., and T.J. Braggins. 1998. Sheep meat odour and flavour. In F. Shahidi (Ed.), Flavor of meat, meat products and seafoods, pp. 101–130. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.
Young, O.A., A.E. Graafhuis, and C.L. Davey. 1980. Post-mortem changes in cytoskeletal proteins of muscle. Meat Sci. 5:41–55.
Young, O.A., G.A. Lane, A. Priolo, and K. Fraser, K. 2003. Pastoral and species flavour in lambs raised on pasture, lucerne or maize. J. Sci. Food Agric. 83:93–104.
Young, O.A., J.L. Berdagué, C. Viallon, S. RoussetAkrim, and M. Theriez. 1997. Fat-borne
volatiles and sheepmeat odour. Meat Sci. 45:183–200.
Yu, L.P., and Y.B. Lee. 1986. Effects of postmortem pH and temperature on bovine muscle structure and meat tenderness. J. Food Sci. 51:774−780.
Yuan H. Brad Kima, Charlotte Liesse, Robert Kempa, Prabhu Balan. 2015. Evaluation of combined effects of aging period and freezing rate on quality attributes of beef loins. Meat Sci. 110:40–45.
Zakrys, P.I., M.G. O’Sullivan, P. Allen, and J.P. Kerry. 2009. Consumer acceptability and physiochemical characteristics of modified atmosphere packed beef steaks. Meat Sci. 81:720–725.
Zakrys, P.I., S.A. Hogan, M.G. O’Sullivan, P. Allen, and J.P. Kerry. 2008. Effects of oxygen concentration on the sensory evaluation and quality indicators of beefmuscle packed under modified atmosphere. Meat Sci. 79:648–655.
Zapata, I., H.N. Zerby, and M. Wick. 2009. Functional proteomic analysis predicts beef tenderness and the tenderness differential. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:4956-4963.
Zeece, M.G., and K. Katoh. 1989. Cathepsin D and its effects on myofibrillar proteins: A review. J. Food Biochem. 13:157–178.
Zembayashi, Meiji, David K. Lunt, and Stephen B. Smith. 1999. Dietary tea reduces the iron content of beef. Meat Sci. 53:221-226.
Zerouala, A.C., and N.C. Stickland. 1991. Cattle at risk for dark-cutting beef have a higher proportion of oxidative muscle fibers. Meat Sci. 29:263–270.
Zhan, Q., K.A. Lord, I. Alamo, Jr., M.C. Hollander, F. Carrier, D. Ron et. al. A. Fornace, Jr. 1994. The gadd and MyD genes define a novel set of mammalian genes encoding acidic proteins that synergistically suppress cell growth. Molec. Cell. Biol. 14:2361–2371.
Zhang, B.T., S.S. Yeung, D.G. Allen, L. Qin, and E.W. Yeung. 2008a. Role of the calcium–calpain pathway in cytoskeletal damage after eccentric contractions. J. Appl. Physiol. 105:352–357.
Zhang, S., T.J. Knight, J.M. Reecy, and D.C. Beitz. 2008b. DNA polymorphisms in bovine fatty acid synthase are associated with beef fatty acid composition. Anim. Genet. 39:62–70.
Zhao, Q.H., S.G. Wang, S.X. Liu, J.P. Li, Y.X. Zhang, Z.Y. Sun., et. al. 2013. PPAR gamma forms a bridge between DNA methylation and histone acetylation at the C/EBPalpha gene promoter to regulate the balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells. FEBS J. 280:5801–5814.
Zhu, L.G., and M.S. Brewer. 1999. Relationship between instrumental visual color in a raw, fresh beef and chicken model system. J. Muscle Foods 10:131–146.
Zhu, M.J., B. Han, J. Tong, C. Ma, J.M. Kimzey, K.R. Underwood, et. al. 2008. AMP activated protein kinase signalling pathways are down regulated and skeletalmuscle development impaired in fetuses of obese, over-nourished sheep. J. Physiol. 586:2651–2664.